Thursday, 9 March 2017

Bonaparte France Royaty's Lovers & Mistresses

Emperor of the French 1810-1814, King of Italy 1805-1814, Protector of Confederation of the Rhine 1806-1813, First Consul of the Republic 1799
a.k.a. born Napoleone di Buonaparte, King of Shreds and PatchesBarrack-room Alcibiades.
Son ofCarlo Maria di Buonaparte & Maria Letizia Ramolino.
Husband of:

A steady stream of beautiful young women
"Though Napoleon guarded and worshiped his wife, he demanded that a steady stream of beautiful young women be available in the chamber next to his. He refused to allow his wife or her spies inside. Constant would answer the door, saying firmly, 'I have orders to let no one in, not even Her Majesty the Empress.' Actresses, courtiers, ladies-in-waiting, dancers and ladies of fashion: Few  refused Napoleon's call, even though his lovemaking was brusque and he lost interest almost as soon as he had conquered a woman. The women were instructed not to wear perfume and often had to wait for him having already undressed, so that matters could be speedily conducted. They hoped for jewels, influence, and money; they were curious about the great man himself; and of course they wished to prove themselves more beautiful then Josephine." (Ambition and Desire: Napoleon's Josephine: n.p.)

Napoleon I's lovers were:
Marie-Antoinette Adèle Papin Duchâtel, amante nel 1804 (*4/7/1782 a Aire-sur-Adour, +a Parigi 20/5/1860). Dama di Palazzo di Giuseppina è sposata con Charles Jacques Nicolas Duchâtel, un alto funzionario
Adele Duchatel

1) Adele Duchatel (1782-1860)
Lover in 1804-1805.

Maid of Honour to Empress Josephine

born Marie-Antoinette-Adele Papin Duchatel
Adele Papin, Madame Duchatel
Marie-Antoinette Duchatel, Comtesse Duchatel

Wife ofCharles-Jacques-Nicolas Duchatel

A golden-haired blonde court beauty.
"When Napoleon and Josephine returned to Paris, he took up with Adele Duchatel, a golden-haired court beauty in possession of a complaisant older husband. Josephine was in paroxysms of misery at the affair. One fay at Saint-Cloud, she saw Adele secretly leave the room and convinced herself that her rival was on her way to Napoleon. Madame de Remusat tried to dissuade her, but Josephine was determined to find out what was happening. She hurtled up the stairs to Napoleon's chamber, listened at the door, and heard the voices of Adele and her husband. She knocked and begged to e allowed in, then burst through the door, ran to the bed, and began upbraiding her husband. Adele started crying and Napoleon was inflamed with fury; as Josephine recounted to Madame de Remusat, 'Bonaparte threw into so violent a passion that I hardly had time to fly before him and escape his rage. I am still trembling at the thought of it.' Adele fled and Josephine dashed away to her rooms, but he followed, screaming and shouting so loudly that the whole palace could hear. He threw every insult at her and smashed her furniture. Shrieking that she was now beyond redemption and that he'd had enough, he ordered her to leave the palace immediately. He roared that he was tired of her spying and that it was time to think of his legacy, 'which demanded that he should take a wife capable of having children.'" (Ambition and Desire: Napoleon's Josephine)

Napoleon's appearance when Adele Duchatel was his lover.
". . . The Murats, insanely jealous of the continuing favour he showed Josephine, devoted themselves to finding women who might displace her in the Emperor's affections. For a time Adele Duchatel seemed to answer to their prayers. Madame Duchatel was a twenty-year-old beauty, separated or divorced -- it is not clear which -- from the middle-aged Director-General of Records. Napoleon took the bait and Murat provided cover by pretending to be madly in love with Adele. A game of cat and mouse developed between Emperor and Empress. Josephine found out about the affair from her spies. . . and tried to maintain surveillance on her husband in the palace, but he outfoxed her by creeping along to his mistress's room in his bare feet." (Napoleon: 300)

An alarming affair, to Empress Josephine.
"The affair which Josephine took most seriously was with Marie Antoinette Duchatel. There were tears and recriminations, and Hortense and Eugene joined her in pleading with Napoleon to break it off. Marie Antoinette had been a lady-in-waiting to Josephine, another blonde -- and with blue eyes said to be almost as beautiful as Josephine's own. In the end France's ruler consulted his wife on how most easily to terminate his relations with the girl." (Napoleon's Elites: 64)

"On another occasion, however, Josephine's compulsion to discover Bonaparte with another woman led to a crippling contretemps. The court was at St-Cloud, where a staircase led to Bonaparte's private apartments to a hidden upstairs room that he used for erotic rendezvous. One night Josephine became suspicious when she saw Adele Duchatel, a tempting twenty-year-old brought to court by the Murats, slip away from the group gathered in the salon. Certain that Adele was on her way to join Bonaparte, Josephine left her guests, beside herself with jealous passion, and made her way to the private apartment at the top of the stairs. The door was closed, but she could hear, through the keyhole, the sound of Bonaparte's voice and Adele's.  She knocked loudly." (Josephine: A life of the Empress: 226)

Adele's persona or character.
". . . Despite being attractive and intelligent and able to play to perfection the part of the coquette, Duchatel was at heart a cold and haughty woman, who gradually revealed the frightening scale of her ambition. . . Duchatel herself always remained loyal to Napoleon, even if fair-weather friends deserted him.  Napoleon, characteristically, repaid her loyalty with slights and insults, cut her in public and refused to speak to her again; in short he behaved like the classical cad."  (Napoleon: 301)

Affairs effects on lovers' family, other people and society.
"Much to Josephine's relied, when they returned to Paris that October Mme de Vaudey, who proved a little too acquisitive for her own good, was quickly put aside.  Almost immediately, however, another candidate was dangled  before Napoleon.  She was Adele Duchatel, a twenty-five-year-old blonde with a much older husband. This affair caused Josephine paroxysms of jealousy...." (Josephine: The Rose of Martinique: 318)

2) Albine de Montholon (1779-1848)
French aristocrat

a.k.a. nee Albine-Helene de Vassal, Albine, Marquise de Montholon, the Minister of Bonaparte.

Wife of:
1. Jean-Pierre Bignon, mar 1797, div 1799.
2. Daniel Roger, mar 1800.

Natural offspring:
1. Helene-Napoleone Bonaparte (1816-1910)

"Once on St. Helena, the pretty and vivacious Albine became Napoleon's mistress. Napoleon was most likely not the father of Napoleone (known as Lili), conceived en route to the island and born on June 18, 1816. He probably was the father of Josephine, born on January 26, 1818. Albine was also rumoured to have had other liaisons on the island, most notably with English Lieutenant Basil Jackson (not to be confused with Major Edward Jackson, who contributed to Engelbert Lutyens' troubles). In July 1819, Albine left St. Helena, taking the three children with her. . . ." (Shannon Selin)

"For six years, Montholon had supervised and engineered the demise of this man he had grown to hate so much. During tht time, Bonaparte took audacious liberties with Albine de Montholon, and indeed there were some whispered question as to the actual parentage of the Montholons' daughter, Napoleona." (The Amadeus Legacy: n.p.)

"She was reputed to have had a number of romantic liaisons whilst on the island. Possibly with Admiral Cockburn, more certainly with Napoleon and with Lt. Basil Jackson, who followed her off the island in 1819 at the wish of the Governor, and stayed with her in Brussels." (Reflections on a Journey to St. Helena)

"In 1808 Charles de Montholon became romantically involved with Albine-Helene de Vassal, a woman three years his senior. Albine hailed from a French family of minor nobility and was on her second marriage. She left her husband to live with Montholon. On October 3, 1810 they had a son named Tristan. Albine's husband demanded a divorce and Montholon was eager to wed her, but Napoleon opposed the marriage on account of Albine's matrimonial past. Montholon took advantage of Napoleon's passage through Wurzburg, on his way to Russia, to request permission to marry a niece 'of President Seguier' of the Supreme Court, without spelling out that the lady in question was Albine. When Napoleon assented, Montholon hurried back to Paris and married his love. Napoleon learned of the marriage at Moscow in October 1812. He was furious and removed Montholon from his diplomatic post." (Shannon Selin: Imagining the Bounds of History)

3) Anna Roche de La Coste (1885?-)
Lover in 1805?.
Lady in waiting to the Empress Josephine.
"As he approached his thirty-sixth birthday the Emperor was, sexually speaking, a ripe fruit to be plucked. His infidelities were becoming more and more overt and the rows with Josephine as consequence more and more bitter. In April 1805, on his way to Milan for the second coronation, he had a brief fling with an unknown woman at Castello di Stupigini, about six miles outside of Turin. But the next liaison was almost a calculated insult to the Empress, as the twenty-year-old Anna Roche de La Coste was one of the ladies-in-waiting whose job it was to read to Josephine. Yet Napoleon did not have things all his own way during this tempestuous affair, since La Coste herself proved capable of running more than one lover at once. Hearing rumours that La Coste had been the mistress of his chamberlain Theodore de Thiard, Napoleon went to great lengths to ensure he and his new conquest would not be disturbed. Having posted guards around her room, he was stupefied when he arrived to find her and Thiard in flagrante. After a furious but ignominious altercation with Thiard, Napoleon sent him off on a mission to the Vatican, then bought La Coste's loyalty by the gift of a priceless jewel. Still smarting from the Thiard business, the Emperor seems to have displaced some of his hostility to Josephine, for we hear of a scene at court where he publicly humiliated his wife by offering La Coste a ring. When Josephine threw another angry scene and demanded La Coste's banishment, Napoleon agreed -- provided Josephine received his mistress at a state reception -- an unheard of privilege for a woman whose official function was supposed to be limited by protocol to the Empress's bedroom. But in order to get rid of La Coste Josephine swallowed the bitter pill." (Napoleon: 316)
Auguste Charlotte von Schonberg, 1800
by Josef Grassi
German aristocrat
Lover in 1809.

Daughter ofPeter August von Schonberg, Palace marshal to Elector of Saxony.
Wife of1. August zu Lynnar (d.1800) Married in 1796
2. Count Ferdinand Kielmannsegge, Captain in Hanoverian army

"Paradoxically, however, the emerging cult, despite its more auspicious subsequent direction, actually thrived on lurid scandal. Indeed, the myth literature attributed to the Emperor's sexual capabilities which stagger the imagination! Of course, much has been made of Napoleon's intimate affiliation with Josephine as well as his aversion to Madame de Stael and Madame de Remusat. But considerably less attention has been paid to his love affair with Marie Walewska, the Polish Countess. Even more significant for our investigation is the relationship to the Countess Charlotte von Kielmannsegg, nee Schonberg. To be sure, a great deal of obscurity surrounds the actual friendship---no mention is made of her in any of the French memoirs nor for that matter in the campaign record of the Saxon Colonel Odeleben---but we are dealing here with myth. She served as the leading lady in a virtual cycle of legends concerning her intimacies with the Emperor. Hans Blum, son of the famous nineteenth-century German democratic leader Robert Blum, notes in his letters that she made a cult of Napoleon so extravagant during her life that if furnished material for q furnished material for a fantastic romance. Her house beside the Weisseritz was stuffed full of Napoleon relics. Almost every article of furniture was a memorial to him and his times. Gertrude Aretz visited the house and reported that Charlotte treasured a lock of his hair, splinters of wood from the floor of his study in the Marcolini Palace, an old bell-pull, a chimney ornament and so on. She was a fanatical venerator of the Napoleon grandeur. . . ." (The Emergence of the Napoleonic Cuit in German Literature)
Desiree Clary
5) Desiree Clary (1777-1860)
a.k.a. Bernardine-Eugenie-Desiree Clary, Desideria, Queen of Sweden
Daughter ofFrancois Clary, French shipowner.
Lover in 1794-1796.

" . . . Her sister Julie married Joseph Bonaparte in August 1794 and Desiree became engaged to his younger brother, Napoleon, who preferred to call her Eugenie. . . In early 1796, however, Napoleon ditched Desiree for Josephine de Beauharnais and in 1798 she married General Jean-Baptist Bernadotte. Napoleon made Bernadotte Marshal of France in 1804 and in 1810 the Swedish Diet elected him Crown Prince and future successor to their childless king. . . ." (Napoleon's Fiancee: The Fabulous Destiny of Desiree Clary)

" . . . Napoleon in turn became enamored with Julie's sister, the 14 year-old Desiree, equally beautiful and also fiery, whom he actively courted (and soon seduced) when not figuring out where such and such a division should be deployed in the forthcoming campaign, or where a new battery should be erected on the French coast. . . ." (The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte: 96)

" . . . But there is no doubt that he seriously contemplated marrying Desiree Clary, the younger sister of Joseph's wife. Madame Joseph and her husband both ardently desired the union, and it is more than likely that Desiree would have consented but for her father's interposition. He saw no reason to be satisfied with Joseph, and he had had enough of the Bonapartes, whose reputation was not a desirable one. Desiree, afterward married Bernadotte, and became Queen of Sweden. But she always regretted the still more brilliant future of which she had been robbed. Mme. Ducrest tells how, at a ball in the Tuilleries, Mme. Bernadotte appeared in a detestable humor---criticising every one and every thing. The explanation was then offered, that madame could not console herself for not having accepted the hand of Napoleon." (The Illustrated American: 321)
Carlotta Gazzani
6) Carlotta Gazzani, Baronne de Brentano (1789-1827)
Lover in 1807.
a.k.a. Madame Gazzani, Madame Gazzani Brentano, Baronne de Brentano, Carlotta Bartani.
Daughter of a Mme. Bertani, a dancer/singer with the Grand-Theatre.

First encounter with the Emperor.
"During the same journey to Italy, in the midst of the fetes given at Genoa in celebration of the union of France and the Ligurian Republic, a lady by the name of Gazzani or Gazzana (her name has been written both ways), crossed Napoleon's path; she was the daughter of a Mme. Bertani, a dancer, or, according to some historians, a singer connected with the Grand-Theatre. Out of compliment to Josephine a number of Italian ladies had gone to Milan, and it had been arranged that La Gazzani should accompany them; it was a strangely assorted party, comprising ladies of the Begrone, Brignole, Doria and Remedi families, and women like Mme. Gazzani and Blanchina La Fleche, who was destine to such a brilliant career in Westphalia." (Napoleon, lover and husband: 124)

"Mme. Gazzani, then called Mme. Gazzani Brentano, and who long afterwards assumed the title of Baroness de Brentano, replaced Mlle. Lacoste, at a salary of five hundred francs a month; from 1805 to 1807 little was heard of her, for during that period which comprised the battle of Austerlitz and the campaign in Prussia and Poland the Emperor was little in France, but on his return to Paris and later at Fontainebleau she saw her opportunity and seized it. She was so lodged that she could easily reach the Emperor at all hours, and when summoned by him immediately hastened to obey. She never attempted to pose as a favorite, but accepted with modesty her role of occasional mistress, and the Empress, at first inclined to be jealous, was quickly reassured by Napoleon's making her his confidante. The Italian retained a respectful and submissive attitude towards the Empress, and remained unpretentiously in her place. She was accorded the entree of the drawing room reserved for the ladies-in-waiting, but that favor bestowed, Napoleon did not publicly interest himself in her and permitted the ladies of the palace to treat her as they pleased and shun her if they chose; their hostility, however, was of a short duration, and soon several of them, and not the least the haughty, relented sufficiently to admit her into their circle. Mme. Gazzani obtained something more substantial, however, from her relations with the Emperor than the flatteries of the court, as she secured the general receivership at Evreau for her husband." (Napoleon, lover and husband: 125)

"Shortly after the return of Napoleon to France, the court removed to Fontainbleau, where the usual intrigues recommenced. . . His Majesty at this moment formed a liaison with a Madame Gazzani, remarked in Italy by Talleyrand, who had persuaded Napoleon to attach her to the Empress in the quality of reader. Madame Gazzani is said to have outshone all the most lovely women of the court. The Emperor made no secret of his liaison, and Josephine, convinced that resistance was useless, submitted quietly to her destiny. . . ." (The Marriages of the Bonapartes, Volume 1: 210-211)

Carlota came after Mademoiselle Lacoste.
". . . Madame Gazzani, who was usually styled Gazzani Brentano, and who at a later period took the title of Baronne de Brentano, on what grounds we know not, accordingly became a reader in the place of Mademoiselle Lacoste, at a salary of 500 francs a month."  (Sex Life of an Emperor: The Many Loves of Napoleon Bonaparte: 92)

Madame Gazzani's physical traits and personal character.
"Carlotta Gazzani was tall, somewhat too slight for perfect beauty, but very gracefully formed, save that her feed and hands were ugly, a defect she concealed to some extent by never appearing without gloves. Her face was exquisite, a perfect type of Italian beauty in its absolute purity of outline. Her dark eyes were large and beautiful, and the delicate harmony of her features was enhanced by an arch smile that displayed the most beautiful teeth. Every woman who saw her praised her loveliness -- a proof that she was unquestionably beautiful, but that she lacked the supreme charm that rouses the envy of other women...." (Sex Life of an Emperor: 92)

"Carlota Gazzani was tall, rather too slight perhaps, but with a most graceful and elegant carriage; her hands and feet were not remarkable for their beauty, indeed she invariably wore gloves, but her features were of the purest type of Italian beauty and her eyes large, dark and very brilliant. Even women praised La Gazzani's beauty, which is positive proof that it was great, but also, that she lacked that peculiar and indescribable charm which renders some women so captivating and the envy of all their sex. Mme. Remusat admitted that it was her husband, then first chamberlain, who charged himself with the Italian beauty's introduction at court, and who persuaded the Emperor to nominate her reader to Josephine; evidently it was not Talleyrand alone who, as Napoleon once said, 'always had his pockets full of mistresses.'" (Napoleon, lover and husband: 124)

The Emperor wanted Carlota gone; the Empress kept her in her household.
" . . . She also mentions the curious fact that Madame Gazzani remained attached to the household, and thus alludes to an incident upon which we have already dwelt. 'Two months after Madame Gazzani became the Imperial favourite, the Emperor, fearing, as often happened, lest he should be enslaved by a woman, suddenly said to Josephine, 'Turn her out; let her go back to Italy.' Josephine refused to drive a woman to despair who had been 'torn from her duties.'  'I shall perhaps,' she said, 'be one day as unhappy as she is.'  Madame Gazzani remained with Josephine after the divorced and the repudiated found some consolation in talking to the repudiated mistress of their faithless lord and master. Madame Gazzani was made a receiver of taxes at Evreux.'" (The Marriages of the Bonapartes, Volume 1: 347)

Spouse & Children
". . . (S)he was consoled for his (Napoleon's) forgetfulness by the success in life of her daughter, Charlotte-Josephine-Eugenie-Claire, self-styled Baroness de Brentano, who made a brilliant match and married M. Alfred Mosselman, by whom she had a daughter who married M. Eugene Le Hon."  (Sex Life of an Emperor: 126)

Beneficiaries & Patronages
" . . . She had obtained something more substantial than Court honors -- namely, her husband's appointment as Receiver-General for Evreux. . . ." (Sex Life of an Emperor: 93)

Affair's aftermath
". . . Her intimacy with the Emperor terminated at Fontainbleau, after that he only saw her by chance. He never loved her and appears never to have talked of her. . . " (Sex Life of an Emperor: 126)

Carlotta Gazzani's other lover was:
1) M. de Pourtales.
Husband ofMademoiselle de Castellane. 

"...Her chief bond of union with Navarre was her liaison with one of the Empress's equerries, M. de Pourtales, who contributed largely to her expenditure until his marriage with Mademoiselle de Castellane...."  (Masson, 2009, p. 93)

"After the imperial divorce Mme. Gazzani rejoined her lord, and being close to Navarre, where Josephine was residing, she became an intimate of the household to which she was strongly attracted by a liaison with M. de Pourtales, a groom of the Empress' household. . . . "  (Napoleon, Lover and Husband: 126)

"When not entertaining guests, Josephine turned her attention to her own household. An incurable romantic, she could not resist matchmaking and meddling in the love lvoes of those around her. When she discovered that M. de Pourtales had begun corresponding with Mlle de Castellane, she immediately intervened. He was something of a roue and had already had an affair with Mlle Gazzani, one of Josephine's lectrices, with whom Napoleon had a brief fling. Determined that he should not take advantage of the rather innocent and sweet-natured Mlle de Castellane, Josephine took them both for a turn around the grounds, where she informed them she was was aware of their burgeoning romance. Then, with a wiliness worthy of her husband, she said to Mlle de Castellane, 'You possess nothing but your name ... M. de Pourtales is very rich; you cannot believe that he intends to marry you.' Embarrassed Pourtales interrupted, piping up his own defence that he would be very happy to do so. Before he had finished uttering the words, Josephine announce, 'I give a dowry of a hundred thousand francs and the trousseau.' When it was discovered that the couple were of different faiths, Josephine also smoothed this complication away by organizing one service by a pastor in the salon and another by a cardinal in the chapel." (Josephine: the Rose of Martinique396)

"When not entertaining guests, Josephine turned her attention to her own household. An incurable romantic, she could not resist matchmaking and meddling in the love lives of those around her. When she discovered that M. de Pourtales had begun corresponding with Mlle de Castellane, she immediately intervened. He was something of a roue and had already an affair with Mlle Gazzani, one of Josephine's lectrices, with whom Napoleon had a brief fling. . . ." (Josephine: The Rose of Martinique: 396)
7) Catherine-Josephine Duchesnois (1777-1835)
French tragic actress at the Comedie-francaise
Napoleon had an ephemeral affair with her in 1804
a.k.a. born Catherine-Josephine Rafin, Josephine Duchesnois, Mademoiselle Duchesnois

" . . . Mademoiselle Duchesnois, 'a tragedienne of great merit but extremely plain off the stage, was passably good-looking behind the footlights, her acting being wonderfully fine, particularly in Phedre. . . ."  (The Love Affairs of Napoleon: 123)

" . . . By this time he was interested in a third actress, Catherine Josephine Raffin, known as Mlle Duchesnois.  This was another brief affair, which ended when Napoleon insulted her as a woman. Busy with affairs of state, he asked his valet Constant to tell her to wait in a room adjoining his study.  After an hour she knocked on his door and Napoleon asked Constant to tell her to get undressed.  Duchesnois did so and shivered for another hour before knocking a second time.  This time a disgruntled Napoleon barked that she should go home, thus making yet another unnecessary enemy."  (Napoleon: A Biography: n.p.)

Her other lovers were:
Casimir Baecker, a harpist in the service of Madame de Genlis, lover in 1810
Mademoiselle Raucourt, her lesbian lover
Marquis Anatole-Charles-Alexis de la Woestine, grandson of Madame de Genlis, lover in 1812
Charles Gelinet, lover in 1815

First encounter with Napoleon
"In 1802 she was brilliant in 'Phedre', where Napoleon saw her. She turned into a rival for the famous Mademoiselle George and every now and then this led to spectacular outbursts.  The empress Josephine herself was on her side.  In 1804 she had a brief affair with Napoleon, who once let her wait for a long time and then sent her away.  The lesbian Mademoiselle Raucourt was another of her suitors."  (androom)
8) Charlotte Rigaud de Vaudreuil (1770-1831)
Lady-in-waiting to Empress Josephine
a.k.a. born Louise-Elisabeth-Charlotte Rigaud de Vaudreuil
Eleonore Denuelle de la Plaigne
Lover in 1806
a.k.a. Louise-Catherine-Eleonore Denuelle, Madame Revel, Madame St. Laurent
Natural offspringharles Leon Denuelle (1806-1881)

"Though Napoleon claimed he had only seven mistresses, he probably had at least 21. One of these was Eleonore Denuelle de La Plaigne. Napoleon met her in 1805, when she was a beautiful eighteen-year-old in the employ of Napoleon's sister, Caroline Bonaparte Murat (Eleonore was also the mistress of Caroline's husband Joachim.). In April 1806 Eleonore obtained a divorce from her husband, who was in prison for forgery. Napoleon set her up in a house on Rue de la Victoire in Paris. On December 13, 1806, she gave birth to Napoleon's first child, a boy. Napoleon was delighted, as this proved he was not responsible for his wife Josephine's infertility. When Eleonore asked for permission to name the boy Napoleon, he agreed to half the name. So the baby was christened Leon, and the birth certificate read: 'Son of Demoiselle Eleonore Denuel, aged twenty years, of independent means; father absent.' Napoleon's liaison with Napoleon ended shortly after Leon's birth. In 1808 Napoleon arranged for her to marry an infantry lieutenant. He was killed during the Russian campaign in 1812. In 1814, she married Charles de Luxbourg, a Bavarian diplomat." (Imagining the Bounds of History)

"The Murats, persistent troublemakers, introduced Napoleon to Eleonore Denuelle de la Plaigne, a tall delicate brunette aged 18. She became pregnant by him, but then Napoleon went off on campaign and never resumed their affair. . . ." (Napoleon's Elites: 64)

Physical appearance & personal qualities: " . . . She was scarcely more than eighteen years of age, tall, slim, well set-up, graceful in her movements and endowed with a certain natural distinction of manner.  Her hair was dark, her eyes also, and she knew how to give them an alluring expression to which her vivacity and coquetry imparted a magical effect.  These lovely eyes of hers probably gazed more lingeringly on the Emperor than was befitting, whenever chance (which she well knew how to direct) placed her in her Sovereign's path. In the end, as a result of frequent encounters and lingering sidelong glances, Napoleon came to notice her. . . ."   (The Love Affairs of Napoleon: 247)

First encounter:  ". . . The Murats threw lavish parties for Napoleon's and his entourage.  They also procured mistresses for him.  In 1805, they introduced him to Eleonore Denuelle de la Plagne, a beautiful eighteen-year-old in their employ, whom Murat was bedding.  In December 18-6 Eleonore gave birth to Napoleon's first child, Charles Leon Denuelle. . . "  (Napoleon: 316)

"It was on Napoleon's return from Italy....that the Murats played their master card.  They introduced to the Emperor a tall, willowy black-eyed brunette called Eleonore Denuelle de la Plagne, an eighteen-year-old beauty with the status of 'grass widow' since her husband was in jail. (Napoleon: A Biography: n.p.)

Natural offspring:  "...In December 1806 she bore a son, whose paternity the Emperor at first accepted, until wagging tongues and Fouche's spies put him in the picture.  While still accepting the theoretical possibility that he could have been the father, he suspected that the true impregnator was Murat...." (Napoleon: A Biography: n.p.) [Ref1:Bingham,342]

"The same Emperor also left a son by another mistress, Louise Catherine Denuelle de la Plaigne, who, at the time of the Emperor's intrigue with her, was married to a certain Jean Francois Revel.  He, discovering her infidelity, obtained a divorce from her on April 29, 1806.  In the following 6th of December she gave birth to a son by the Emperor, which son received at his baptism the Christian names of Charles Leon, and, from his imperial father, the title of Count, with settlements representing 3000 pounds a year and also a right to certain dues on all the wood sold by the State from forests of the department of the Moselle.  In 1808 the mother married a captain of Cuirassiers named Augier, this marriage being arranged byb Napoleon, who then settled on the bride a personal income of 800 pounds a year.  Captain Augier, however, died in r about 1812, and two years later his widow took a third husband in the person of Karl August, Count von Luxburg, Minister of State of the Grand Duchy of Baden. The Countess de Luxburg, as she was called in Paris, lived until 1868 in receipt of not merely the income of her settlement but of frequent financial help from Napoleon III, who also did a great deal for her son.  There must still be many people able to remember Count Leon, as he was called.  His origin is stamped upon his face, he was physically the living portrait of the great captain.  He ought never to have known want, having been provided with such a handsome income by Napoleon, who further entrusted him to the guardianship of M. de Mauvieres, with whose sons he was educated with a view to his entering the magistracy.  On completing his twenty-first year Leon came into possession of the fortune which had been accumulating during his minority.  Unluckily he had a bad failing, he was a gamester, and no long period elapsed before he had reduced himself to beggary.  At the advent of the Second Empire he not unnaturally applied to Napoleon III for assistance, asserting, moreover, a right to a sum of about 35,000 pounds, which he alleged was due to him by the State on account of the woodcut in the Moselle forests in 1815. But in that respect the first Napoleon's decrees had been annulled by the Bourbons. . . ." (The Court of the Tuileries, 1852-1870: 179-180)
Élisabeth-Antoinette Le Michaud d'Arçon de Vaudey (Besançon, 27 October 1773- 1833?) was famous for her affair with French Emperor Napoleon I, which was a cause of a violent scene between the Emperor and his wife Joséphine shortly before their coronation.
Elisabeth de Vaudey
10) Elisabeth de Vaudey (1773-1833)
Lady-in-waiting to Empress Josephine, 1804
a.k.a. Elisabeth le Michaud d'Arcon
Lover in 1804.

Daughter of General Jean Le Michaud d'Arcon.
Wife of Captain Francois-Xavier-Octave Barberot de Vaudey de Vellexon, mar 1798

Personal & family background.
"Elisabeth the Michaud of Arçon de Vaudey (1773 - 1863) She was born in Besançon on October 27, 1773 in a noble family, her father was general under the revolution and senator under the consulate. Married at the age of 16 to Mr. Barberot de Vellexon de Vaudey who emigrates a year after this union. She inherits the intellectual qualities of her father and the beauty of her mother. She is described by her contemporaries as 'a very pretty person, witty, musician, friendly voice, very educated, but also very intriguing'. By another, she is charming, all grace, all sweetness, with pretty face, very beautiful teeth, beautiful blond hair, an aquiline nose a little long, but hooked and full of character, a hand to notice, a very small foot '. In 1804, she is chosen to be bridesmaid of the Empress Josephine. It is noticed by the emperor during a trip of this one to Aix-la-Chapelle. She is famous for being the mistress of Napoleon. Their affair was the cause of a violent domestic scene between the Emperor and his wife Josephine shortly before their coronation. Elisabeth de Vaudey officially lost her position as lady of the palace on October 29, 1804, she will then experience the decay. She becomes the owner of a luxury brothel, she is declared bankrupt by the Paris Commercial Court. She is then interned in a psychiatric asylum in Montmartre. She died in the most complete indigence on April 14, 1863. She is buried in the mass grave." (Racinescomtoises)

" . . . One of her [Empress Josephine] new ladies-in-waiting was Elisabeth de Vaudey, a pretty thirty-one-year-old blonde with a good singing voice and a passion for intrigue. She was fond of Jose pone but scornfully thought her 'need to open her heart, to repeat all that happens between herself and the Emperor, takes away much of Napoleon's confidence in her.'She saw her mistress as superficial. 'Josephine is like a ten-year-old child in her generosity, her frivolity and her rapid emotions, she can weep and be comforted in minutes.' Elisabeth thought Josephine was as 'ignorant as most Creoles' but had acquired 'graceful manners' and with, although she did admit that the empress was 'perfectly gentle and equable; it is impossible not to be fond of her.' Josephine made a mistake in telling Elisabeth her secrets, for the young woman liked to gossip, and everything Josephine told her found its way back to the Emperor." (Ambition and Desire: Napoleon's Josephine: n.p.)

"Madame de Vaudey, at appears, was a very attractive woman, tall, which does not always mean well-proportioned, and gifted with such a fund of self-confidence that it would hardly have been charitable to have wished her any more of it. This quality enabled her to make the most of her beauty, which of itself, perhaps, would have been of no very great account. It is the most likely thing in the world that she did not wait for the Emperor to deign to notice her, but that she herself knew well how to attract his attention. She was perfectly aware---indeed, it is the very A B C of the art of coquetry---that a man can rarely resist a compliment, particularly when it proceeds from a pair of pretty lips. In this regard Napoleon was not wiser than the rest, and his marriage which is the proof of it) had not yet opened his eyes to a stratagem so ordinary and yet so popular among coquettes. In addition to this, his vanity, which had already been flattered by his marriage with a Vicomtesse, derived further satisfaction from an intrigue with a woman of title, a woman of the Faubourg St. Germain clique. In short, it was no long time before he took this schemer for his mistress." (The Love Affairs of Napoleon: 165)

Reference for Elisabeth de Vaudey.
Grenadier Labeille.
Emilie Levert
11) Emilie Levert (1788-1843)
French actress.
a.k.a. Mademoiselle Leverd.
"'On that day,' says the editor in a note to the words 'and at St. Cloud before their imperial and royal majesties, on the 18th of August'---'on that day, they played together with Artaxerxes the comedy of The Legacy, in which Mlle. Emilie Levert made her first appearance before their majesties, in the part of the countess: the day was doubly fortunate; the emperor, pleased by the representation of both pieces, granted to the author of Artaxerxes a pension of 2,000 francs, and to Mlle. Emelie Levert a gratuity of 3,000 francs.'" (The Critical Review: Or, Annals of Literature: 499)
Victoria Kraus as Venus
by Johann Baptist Lampi
12) Emilie Kraus, Baronin Wolfsberg (1785-1845)
Lover in 1805-1813.
a.k.a. Eva Lucia Cecilia Victoria Kraus, Emilie Victoria Kraus, the Dog Countes
Daughter of: Joze Kraus, a mining lawyer & Rosalia Schlibar, a teacher's daughter
Wife of Johannes Michael Schonauer, an Austrian lawyer, mar 1817, div 1820
Natural offspring: 1. Eugen Alexander Megerle von Muhlfeld (1810-1868), Austrian jurist & politician

13) Felicite Longrois (1786-1847)
Lover in 1805-1806.
a.k.a. Felicite LongoryMadame Henri-Francois Riesener, Madame Riesner
"A typical case was that of Felicite Longory, daughter of a petty officer of the cabinet, whom Josephine had called to fill the position of lady usher.  As such she was stationed in the salon in which the private apartments opened, and her duties consisted simply of throwing open the double doors for the passage of the Emperor or Empress;  for this service she received three thousand, six hundred francs a year, which sum Josephine supplemented by six hundred francs in 1806.  Felicite was a personage of no importance, almost a servant, yet she succeeded in attracting the attentions of the Emperor, and, the inevitable scene with the Empress ensuring, was naturally discharge, and later married well."  (Masson, n.d., pp. 122-123)

Personal & Family Background:  "Madame Riesener led a remarkable early life.  She was born Felicite Longrois, and was the granddaughter of Pierre Longrois, who was in charge of the furniture at the Chateau de la Muette.  Through one of her uncles she was introduced to the Imperial service, where she became a dame d'annonce. . . . "  (Watson, 1973, p. 64)

Spouse & Children:  ". . . During the following summer (i.e., 1806-1807) she was married off to Henri Riesener, the Empress Josephine signing the prenuptial contract.  Riesener was then almost forty years old, his attractive wife not yet twenty. . .  The Rieseners settled near Rouen and seem to have led a happy life. . .  Henri Riesener was a tolerably successful painter who specialized in neoclassical portraits. . "  (Watson, 1973, p. 64 [Fam1:GeneaNet]
Lover in 1810.
a.k.a. Francoise Pellapra, Francoise-Marie Pellapra.
Daughter ofFrench bookseller
Wife ofHenri de Pellapra, French financier.
Natural offspring1. Emilie-Louise-Marie-Francoise-Josephine Pellapra (1806-1871)

"Françoise-Marie LeRoy was the mother of Émilie Louise Marie Françoise Joséphine Pellapra. Emilie may have been an illegitimate daughter of Napoleon I.  LeRoy was daughter of a Lyon bookseller. Her husband was Henri (de) Pellapra, a rich financer. Emilie Pellapra claimed she was the natural daughter of Napoleon. This would have had to have been the result of an affair with her mother at the time of a stay by Napoleon in Lyon. This claim was that an affair took place in April 1805, whilst Napoleon was on the way to Italy to be crowned. But this date is incompatible with the birth of Emilie in November 1806. For Emilie to have been the daughter of Napoleon it would have been necessary that he stayed in Lyon in February 1806. However, no stay in this city at that time seems to have taken place and, according to several authors (in particular André Gavoty in the Bulletin de l'Institut Napoleon April 1950), Napoleon only met LeRoy in 1810."  (Wikipedia)

"Caroline immediately sent the news to Napoleon by courier. Nobody, however, seems to have informed him of the birth of his other child, which had occurred in Lyons on 11 November. The mother was Francoise-Marie-Emilie Pellapra, the pretty scatterbrain whom he had met in Lyons in the spring of 1805 and who had eagerly followed him to Paris to be seduced in an alcove adjoining his map-room in the Tuileries. She was slim and attractive, dark-haired and blue-eyed, married to a dour minor government official who was far from appreciating the honor conferred on his wife by the Emperor. Later, when Napoleon heard of the birth and rewarded the cuckolded husband with a post as tax collector, Alain Pellapra relented a little, but his first instinct was to deny paternity of the child. After sending Francoise back to her native Lyons for the birth, he insisted on the child being left there with his mother-in-law, Madame Louise Leroy. The baby girl was given a mixture of her mother's names, her grandmother's and that of Napoleon's deceived wife, for it was still popular to name children after Our Lady of Victories, the gracious Josephine, and Madame Pellapra was giddy-minded enough not to see anything odd in it. For most of the next four years little Emilie-Louise-Marie-Francoise-Josephine stayed in the Leroy apartment in the center of Lyons. From the balcony she could peep across the plain of Les Brotteaux, the scene of some of the most hideous atrocities of the Revolution. Day by day her cheeks plumped into an Italian chubbiness, her small nose gently curved into a budgerigar beak. There could be no doubt she was a Bonaparte." (Alexander Palace)

Affair's effect on family, friends and society: " . . . His liaison with Emilie Pellapra of Lyon ws even shorter and troubled Josephione hardly at all." (Napoleon's Elites: 64)
14) Giuseppina Grassini (1773-1850)
Italian singer
Napoleon had an ephemeral affair with her.
Lover in 1800.
"Contralto Giuseppina Grassini (1773-1850) became Napoleon's lover on June 4, 1800. They carried on a brief relationship in Paris. Strictly neutral in politics, after Napoleon's fall she became the mistress, first of Viscount Castlereagh, the British Secretary of War, then the Duke of Wellington, during her London engagement. She retired in 1823 with a comfortable fortune, and died on January 2, 1850, still a beautiful woman, in her 77th year." (History Through the Opera Glass: 331)

"One liaison in which Napoleon indulged during the Consular period is worthy of remark, in proof of the control he exercised over his passions where they were likely to interfere with more material interests.  When in Italy, after Marengo, the celebrated singer Grassini attracted the attention of the conqueror.  He sent for her, and she reminded him that she had made her debut at the moment of his first exploits as general of the army of Italy.  'I was then,' she said, 'in the height of my beauty and my talent.  I charmed all eyes and inflamed all hearts. The youthful General alone remained cold, and yet I only thought of him.  How strange!  When I was worth something, and had all Italy at my feet, and would have disdained everything for a look from you, I could not obtain it; and now, when I am no longer worthy of your notice, you regard me with a favourable eye.'  The liaison with Madame Grassini seems to have lasted for a year.  Napoleon gave her money to go to Paris, and she was engaged to sing at the court concerts, much to the annoyance of Josephine.  The last one hears of this lady in the memoirs of the period is in 1814, when , according to Bourrienne, the Duke of Wellington sought her good graces, 'in order, no doubt, to acquire some resemblance to General Bonaparte'!" (The Marriages of the Bonapartes, Volume 1: 181)

A young rival lover: "Napoleon greatly appreciated music and the human voice, although he himself sang out of tune. He bestowed the Order of the Iron Crown on the great Italian singer Crescentini, and also gave Grassini fifteen thousand francs per month as he (rather wittily) installed her as his mistress in the guest-house on the rue Chantereine. Grassini wanted to become Napoleon's openly avowed mistress, but for both political and personal reasons the first consul wanted to keep the affair secret, so fairly soon she took on a lover, a twenty-two-year-old violinist from Bordeaux called Rode. Rode was understandably nervous of the Corsican emperor finding out, yet when he did he acted very generously, and in March and October 1801, Grassini and Rode performed with his permission in the Theatre de la Republique where the receipts amounted to 13,868 francs on the latter occasion alone. The lovers then left for an extended and triumphant tour of Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. Napoleon had clearly not entirely forsworn her, however, as in 1803 Josephine was writing to her friend Madame de Kreny to ask whether she might send her maid to Julie to spy on Grassini on her return to Paris. . . ." (Napoleon and Wellington: 126)

Imperial largesse to a lover: "When Grassini returned to Paris, Napoleon welcomed her back with a thirty-six thousand franc salary and a fifteen thousand franc 'bonus' as prima donna at -- ironically enough -- the Theatre de l'Imperatrice. He even paid 1,200 francs for a box at her and Rode's concerts. Along with other miscellaneous gifts she is estimated to have cost the French taxpayer seventy thousand francs per annum between 1807 and 1814, and it is hard to believe that these enormous sums solely covered her services to song. When she was robbed of a diamond-encrusted portrait of the emperor on the Cote d'Or in 1807, two of the four Swiss deserters responsible were executed by the local National Guard commander, to whom Napoleon awarded the legion d'honneur. Napoleon was also present in November 1813 when she appeared as Horatia in Gli Orazi at the Theatre-Italien." (Napoleon and Wellington: 127-128)

15) Grace Dalrymple.
"It was about this time, if reliance can be placed on Madame Elliot, or rather on the editor of her unfinished Memoirs, that Bonaparte asked this beautifl and charming Englishwoman to marry him.  Madame Elliott, nee Grace Dalrymple, was one of the prettiest women of her day and one of its greatest coquettes, but what differentiated her from most others of her class was that her relations with men were always redeemed from vulgarity by a certain high-minded ambition. She was the mistress successively of the Prince of Wales and Philippe Egalite Duc d'Orleans, by the former of whom she had had a daughter.  During the Terror she had been shut up in the prison of Les Carmes, and it would seem as though a singular fatality had brought together as captives within the walls of this erstwhile convent three of the women, Madame Elliot, Madame Beauharnais and Madame Tallien, who succeeded in attracting for a time the attentions of that fickle gallant, Napoleon.  The editor of Madame Elliot's memoirs writes in the following terms: 'Madame Dalrymple Elliot never wearied of recounting about the man who was destine to make the world resound with his triumphs, numberless stories of his less conspicuous days.  She had even received a proposal of marriage from him and refused it.'  It is unfortunate that there is not more detailed information available on this point for, if there is any truth in the story, it is noteworthy that Napoleon, who was always strongly prejudiced against divorced people, overcame his aversion when paying his attention to this Englishwoman, who was herself a divorcee. If only she had been no more than that!" (The Love Affairs of Napoleon: 55-56)

16) Louise Rolandeau.
French actress of the Theatre-italien
Lover in 1802.
" . . . In June 1802 he had an affair with the young actress Louise Rolandeau.  This was no more than a 'fling' but in November the same year he began a more sustained liaison with another actress. . . ."  (Napoleon: A Biography: n.p.)

17) Madame Fouresnell.

18) Madame Valkier.

19) Mademoiselle Branchui.
a.k.a. Madame Branchu

20) Mademoiselle Guillebeau.
"Although oblivious of Mme. Gazzani, Napoleon often spoke of a certain Mlle. Guillebeau, the daughter of a bankrupt banker, who was, in 1808, appointed to assist Mme. Gazzani as reader.  Mlle. Guillebeau's mother was Irish by birth, and had three daughters, two of whom were grown and contributed to the family income by dancing and playing the tambourine in the drawing-rooms of the nobility. . . . "  (Masson, n.d., p. 128)

21) Mademoiselle Lacoste.
"In the early days of April 1805 . . . the Emperor left Paris for Italy. . .  His feelings of satisfaction, added to the exhilarating influence if the rapid change of scene, doubtless had the effect of inflaming the Emperor's desires, for he did not omit to observe that on of the Empress's readers, Mademoiselle Lacoste, was the possessor of the bluest of eyes and the fairest of skins.  It was only quite recently that she had entered the Imperial service.  'She was a penniless orphan and had been brought up by an aunt, who was said to be a very deigning woman.  Without being able to boast of any extraordinary beauty, she was decidedly attractive, although slightly too thin and rather too self-possessed. Still she was perfectly proportioned and ha very fine fair hair.  She was, moreover, of an exceedingly gentle disposition, and had received an excellent education, uniting with considerable wit a fund of alluring gaiety.'" (The Love Affairs of Napoleon: 228-229)

"Mlle. Lacoste stood a little higher on the social plane.  She was a slight and pretty blonde, an orphan without fortune, who had been brought up by an aunt who was said to be a schemer, and who managed her niece's presentation to Josephine. The Empress, touched by the girl's forlorn state, gave her an ambitious position, vaguely entitled a reader.  Mlle. Lacoste certainly did not find her duties fatiguing, for hardly had she assumed the position when the court departed for Milan where the coronation was to take place, and she followed the court, without being of it, for she had no clearly defined position. . . . "  (Masson, n.d., p. 123)
22) Marguerite-Josephine Weimer (1787-1867)
French actress
Lover in 1803.
a.k.a. Mademoiselle Georges, Marguerite Georges, Marguerite-Josephine Weimer George

"Only fifteen at her debut as Clytemnestra in November 1802, but already physically mature with firm, full breasts, Mademoiselle George stunned Paris, and within a few months she had made her way to Napoleon's bed.  On his third visit to the Comedie-Francaise to watch her perform, as Emilie in Corneille's classic Cinna, Napoleon arrived late amid cries of 'Rocommencez!'  When Mademoiselle George then came to the key line, 'If I could seduce Cinna, I can seduce many others too,' the parterre exploded with delight, all eyes turned toward Napoleon's box."

" . . . Mademoiselle Georges, who was a magnificent woman but only a moderate actress, had been trained by Mademoiselle Raucourt.  Without having an exceptionally fine voice she was a good elocutionist, exhibiting plenty of lofty dignity in her style and bearing.  She was on the whole a beautiful tragedy-queen, though rarely, perhaps never, did she attain the greatest heights.'"  (The Love Affairs of Napoleon: 123)

" . . . His most enduring sexual adventure, which was an open secret for the public, was with Mademoiselle George.  When writing her memoirs under the Second Empire and hoping for a pension from Napoleon's nephew, George described the affair as a model of patriarchal relations.  She, virginal and naive, agreed to the liaison at first out of duty and awe for the nation's leader but soon came to love him for his tenderness.  In spite of her growing love, she never forgot how insignificant she was in the life of her master, who was necessarily preoccupied with affairs of state.  Therefore, every act of attentiveness filled her with gratitude.  In reality, the affair, which lasted two years, was nothing like the model.  After the Consul decided to sleep with the beautiful actress, he had to send her current lover, a foreign prince, packing.  Both Napoleon and George had other lovers between their trysts.  (Daughters of Eve: 82)

Napoleon treated Mademoiselle George -- whom he called 'Georgina' -- generously if boisterously, once pushing forty thousand francs down her cleavage, presumably in notes. They had a two-year affair during his consulship, which infuriated Josephine, but as Napoleon once put it: 'Exclusivity is not in my nature.'. . . The affair ended in 1804. When years later Alexandre Dumas the Elder as Mademoiselle George why, she answered, with slightly more poetry than accuracy: 'He left me to become an emperor.'." (Napoleon and Wellington: 130)

23) Pauline Foures (1778-1869)
Lover in 1798.

Marguerite-Pauline Belleisle
Pauline de Ranchoup
Pauline Foures
Madame Foures
la Bellilote
Napoleon's Cleopatra
Notre Souveraine de l'Orient

"In Egypt, Napoleon in his separation was solaced by a lady called La Bellilote, who concealed a well-rounded pair of buttocks in tight officer's breeches. . . ." (The Age of Napoleon: 55)

His mistress in Cairo.
"Madame Foures, whom the whole army now dubbed Notre Souveraine de l'Orient, was playing the dutiful mistress at Cairo while her husband was being wafted towards the shores of France. But the sea was furrowed in all directions by the English cruisers, and few were the vessels which, setting sail from Egypt, succeeded in threading te complicated network of hostile ships that were ever on the look-out for prey.  Foures' cutter met with the usual fate, and fell into the hands of the enemy." (The Love Affairs of Napoleon: 97)

Became the object of his desire.
"During his stay in Egypt Bonaparte had little to do with the local women. He found them 'Ruben-esque' and undeserving of his attentions. It was a French woman then, who turned Bonaparte's head. He had always been faithful to Josephine, but why should he now - the divorce was only awaiting his return to France? A young blonde, Pauline Foures, wife of a lieutenant in the Chasseurs, became the object of his desire."  (Pauline Foures: Napoleon's Cleopatra)

" . . . [H]is attention was drawn to Pauline Foures whom he soon set about separating from her husband. He gave orders for the lieutenant to leave immediately by diligence for the coast of Rosetta. From there he was to take dispatches (all of no importance) to Paris by way of Malta. He was to remain in Paris for ten days and then -- Bonaparte might well have tired of Bellilotte by then -- Foures was to return to Egypt 'as quickly as possible'." (Napoleon: His Wives & Women)

First encounter:  " . . . He was to meet Pauline in the Tivoli Egyptien, a Cairo pleasure gardens run on the model of the Parisian Tivoli. Attracted by her blond hair, petite figure and perfect teeth, Napoleon sent Junot and Duroc to pay court for him. She however resisted. There then followed protestations, declarations and expensive gifts - all calculated to soften the opposition. Then Napoleon played his master card. Foures (who had been promoted to Lieutenant 18 October, 1798) was ordered to go to France on a mission to deliver a message to the Directory. He boarded the Chasseur 28 December 1798. Napoleon was able to move in. . . ."  (Pauline Foures: Napoleon's Lover)

Aftermath:" . . . In Egypt he gave free rein to his passions. He found a Bathsheba in a bright and pretty woman named Mme/ Pauline Foures, wife of one of his sub-lieutenants. To get Uriah out of the way, he was sent on a mission to Paris. But the vessel that carried him fell into the hands of the English; they read the despatches with which he was intrusted, and, suspecting the truth, put him back on shore at Alexandria. When M. Foures learned how he had been duped, he flew into a violent passion, and ended by obtaining a divorce. Napoleon and Madame Foures seem to have really attached to each other. When he returned to Paris the lady followed him, in the hope of renewing the intimacy. But he had made his peace with Josephine, the imperial pair were living together in amity, and, in the first joy of reunion Bonaparte had no wish to rejoin her. He provided handsomely for Mme/ Foures, however, and always retained an interest in her. Foures, on his return from Egypt was willing to forgive and forget, and had even appealed to the tribunals to annul the divorce, when Napoleon stepped in and forced the lady, much against her will, to marry a M. Rauchoppe, who was desperately in love with her and made her an excellent husband. But Mme. Rauchoppe never forgot Napoleon. Whe he was at St. Helena she ruined herself in trying to compass his deliverance. She survived his death only a few days. (The Illustrated American: 321)

"Her friend, Pauline de Ranchoup, Bonaparte's former mistress, died in 1869 at the age of ninety. She had outlived Napoleon by almost half a century." (Napoleon: His Wives & Women: 92)

24) Marie LeczynskaCountess Walewska (1786-1817)Pol
ish patriot
Lover in 1807.
a.k.a. Maria Walewska
Wife of:
1. Count Anastazy, Waleski mar 1804
2. General Philippe-Antoine d'OrnanoNapoleon's distant cousin, mar 1817
Natural offspring:

1. Alexandre-Florian-Joseph ColonnaDuc de Walewski 1866 (1810-1868), French politician & diplomat
French ambassador to Britain, 1851-1855
French foreign minister, 1855-1860
"The young Polish woman's name was Countess Marie Walewska. Just twenty years of age at this time, she was already married to a septuagenarian aristocrat who, it seems, did not overly object to his wife being used a s a pawn in attempts to wrangle a Polish state from the French.  Blonde and beautiful, Marie exuded the same powerful femininity that had attracted Napoleon to Josephine. Smitten at first by her physical attractiveness, Bonaparte came to grow very fond, perhaps even genuinely to love, the young Polish woman, but her feelings for him were certainly stronger. She would bear him a son in May 1810 and remain loyal to him to the very end.  How far his affection for her influenced his attitude towards the Poles in general is impossible to say, but as Napoleon undoubtedly had a strong romantic streak, it is possible that it coloured his judgement. What it did not do, however, was what the Polish aristocrats who had pressed the match on Marie had hoped it would -- induce the Emperor to resurrect Poland immediately." (Napoleon and Russia: 143)

"The young Pole, Marie Walewska, was the one mistress for whom Napoleon entertained real fondness, even love. Following their affair in Poland in early 1807, the Emperor had encouraged her to come to Paris, which she eventually did at the start of 1808, staying there and resuming their intimate relationship for several months before returning once more to Poland. Them in late summer 1809, while Bonaparte was working out the peace settlement with Austria, he invited her to join him in Vienna. By the end of September, to both their surprise, Marie was pregnant. This time there could only be one father." (Napoleon and Russia: 238)

First Encounter:  "...Bold and beautiful, she was presented to Napoleon in January 1807 during his winter campaign in Poland and later captivated him at a ball in Warsaw.  She only yielded to his advances, however, when persuaded by Polish patriots that it was her national duty.  After spending the spring with Napoleon at the chateau of Finkenstein, she visited him in Paris in 1808 and at Schonbrunn in 1809...."  (Nicholls, 1999. p. 258)

"Napoleon and Maria Waleska had first met seven years before, when the emperor passed through Warsaw and showed an obvious infatuation with the young Polish woman, than an eighteen-year-old newlywed.
25) Marie-Therese Bourgoin (1785-1833)
French dramatic & comedic actress.
Lover in 1804.
a.k.a. Therese Bourgoin, Mademoiselle Bourgoin, the Goddess of Joy & Pleasure

"Mademoiselle Bourgoin, a pretty woman and a pleasing actress, was a sort of celebrity on account of her rather suggestive bons mots---utterances somewhat in the style of Mademoiselle Arnould's . . ."  (The Love Affairs of Napoleon: 130)

"The final woman in the bevy of actresses 'entertained' by the Consul was Mlle Bourgoin, the mistress of Chaptal, Minister of the Interior.  Indulging in his taste for the humiliation of others, Napoleon arranged to have la Bourgoin brought to him while he was in conclave with Chaptal; he thus gratuitously made another mortal enemy.  But this affair did not last long either, for Bourgoin had a taste for coarse jokes which Napoleon did not like in women.  By the end of 1804 this liaison too had fizzled out.  Bourgoin went on to a notable career as grande horizontale, specializing in sleeping with men in some way close to her greatest conquest: she was the mistress of Czar Alexander and also of Jerome, when he was King of Westphalia, in 1812."  (Napoleon: A Biography: n.p.)

Teresa de Cabarrus
Princesse de Chimay
26) Teresa de CabarrusPrincesse de Chimay (1773-1835).
French social figure.
a.k.a. Juana Maria Ignazia Teresa de Cabarrus y Galabert, Therezia Cabarrus
Madame de Fontenay, Madame Tallien, Citoyenne Tallien, Our Lady of Thermidor, Notre Dame de Thermidorla Reine de Bordeaux.

Physical appearance and personal qualities"It was Bonaparte's object to conciliate by his affability the good offices of the Citoyenne Tallien. She was so beautiful, and he so ready to love her! And yet what a contrast between them! He, of low stature, thin, hollow-eyed, his sallow skin drawn tight like parchment across his temples, his hair long and ill-powdered, just, in a word, as we know him in Guerin's splendid portrait. She, tall, of brilliant complexion, overflowing with that happiness which in a woman is a second dower of beauty, and tended from heat to foot with all the care and all the art that mark the consummate coquette. 'Her sole head-dress,' says the Duchesse d'Abrantes, one of her adorers, 'was her own splendid black hair plaited around the head, not hanging down at all, but simply plaited in antique fashion as in the busts in the Vatican. It was a style which admirably became her regular, classic type of beauty, setting off like a framework of ebony the gleaming ivory of her perfect neck and lovely features which, though without apparent colour, were of a whiteness instinct with life and warmth---a veritable complexion of Cadiz. Her only adornment was a long ample robe of muslin falling in large folds about her limbs, and modelled after the drapery of a Grecian statue. Only, the robe was of choice Indian muslin and fashioned, no doubt, more elegantly than those of Aspasia or Poppaea. It was caught up at the bosom, and the sleeves were drawn back over the arms and fastened with old-fashioned cameo brooches. Similar cameos adorned her shoulders and her waist. She wore no gloves, but on one of her arms---arms which might have served as a model for Canova's finest statue---she wore a serpent of gold enamelled with black, the head of which was composed of a superb emerald carved in the form of a reptile's head. She also wore a magnificent shawl of cashmere, a luxury then very rare in France, the folds of which she would draw around her with inimitable grace and infinite coquetry, for the crimson and purple hues of the Indian stuff intensified the gleaming whiteness of her arms and shoulders.  When she smiled, and she smiled most graciously, in acknowledgement of the many bows that were made her, she displayed two rows of glittering pearls that must have made man a woman jealous.'" (The Love Affairs of Napoleon: 59-60)

First encounter: "Another witness who, since he was one of Madame Tallien's lovers, deserves credence, to wit the financier and contractor Ouvrard, has written as follows:---'It was shortly before the 13th Vendemiaire that Bonaparte was introduced at Madame Tallien's. He was perhaps the least conspicuous, the least favoured by Fortune of all the people who composed her salon. It often happened that in the midst of the most animated discussions people would go off into little groups where they forgot in light and careless converse the grave matters that but too often oppressed their thoughts. Bonaparte rarely joined them, but when he did so he displayed an abandon and a light-heartedness full of sparkle and wit.  One evening, he adopted the tone and mannerisms of a fortune-teller, and seizing Madame Tallien's hand began to deliver himself of all sorts of extravagances.'" (The Love Affairs of Napoleon: 58)

References for Princesse de Chimay.
World of the Marchioness.
Comtesse du Cayla with her children
Ugoline & Ugolin
by Francois Gerard, 1825
@ Palace of Versailles
27) Zoe TalonDuchesse du Cayla (1785-1852)
a.k.a. born Zoe-Victoire Talon, Comtesse Achille de Baschi du Cayla.
Daughter ofAntoine-Omer Talon, French royal avocat.
Wife ofAchille-Pierre-Antoine Baschi du Cayla, Marquis d'Aubais, Peer of France
(d.1851), mar 1802, sep?

Lovers of Napoleon's wives.
1. Josephine de Beauharnais (1763-1814)
Her lovers were:
1) Hippolyte-Charles (1773-1837)
a.k.a. l'Eveillethe Lively One.
Lover in 1796.
"Hippolyte Charles, a lieutenant in the Hussar regiment and deputy to General Leclerc, Bonaparte's brother-in-law, first met Josephine in Paris. They began an affair immediately. Although she was 9 years his elder, she could not resist his charm and his uniform. Hippolyte Charles was a Southerner and made up for his short stature with a very handsome face with a dark complexion and long black whiskers and moustache...Charles was attracted to Josephine for her confidence, power and sexual experience...." (Wikipedia)

"Toward the end of April 1796, less than two months after her wedding, Josephine entertained two officers at her house in the rue Chantereine.  Once, Colonel Leclerc of the Army of Italy, was stocky and solemn, an undistinguished young man with little to say.  But the other, Lieutenant Hippolyte Charles, was not only handsome but highly entertaining... "...He was the beau ideal of the fashionable drawing room in May and June, his dark beauty a foil for the pallor of the women, who were just then following a fad for wearing blonde wigs.  Hippolyte was elegant---'no one before him has ever known how to tie a cravat,' Josephine said---and with his fine features, olive skin, black hair and merry blue eyes he was quite irresistible."  (Erickson, 2000, p. 139)

Physical Traits & Personal Qualities:  "The consensus was that Charles was indeed a very attractive man... He was a 'Mediterranean type', according to one contemporary, slightly shorter than average (the same height as Napoleon, around five feet six inches), with a well-muscled physique and small hands and feet.  He had a handsome face: fine-featured with a rounded chin and passable teeth, piercing blue eyes, and olive skin that tanned easily to a deep brown.  His features were framed by perfectly styled jet-black hair, moustache, sideburns and beard.  An impeccable dresser, he was a picture of elegance in his sky-blue uniform, red belt, Hungarian trousers, boots of beaten Moroccan leather and a curved sabre in a sheath of leather and silver, decorated with bristling dragon breathing flames of gold."  (Stuart, 2011, p. 194)

Persona or Character:  ". . . Women adored him and he was easy in their company.  'He was', remarked one female contemporary, 'utterly charming, with the impeccable manners of a hussar. . . and great elegance.'  He took an active interest in fashion and complimented women adroitly.  He always knew the latest gossip and had for each conversational sally some clever riposte. . . His practical jokes were of the vulgar slapstick variety, thoughtless and silly. . .  Mostly he was famous for his quips and puns. . .  M. Charles was more than just a 'card', he was also an honourable man. . . He acquired the nickname 'l'Eveille' ('the lively one'), because of his ability to raise his companions' spirits. . . In later years, despite his lack of funds, he never attempted to capitalize on the valuable love letters he had received from Josephine. . . . " (Stuart, 2011, p. 194)

"Hippolyte Charles met the married Josephine Bonaparte in Paris at one of the soirees frequently given by Josephine's friend Theresia Tallien  The couple embarked on one of the most intense love affairs of Josephine's life."  (Only Love the Musical)

First Encounter:  ". . . They had met in the middle of April, when Charles accompanied Napoleon's old friend General Leclerc to Paris in order to pay his respects to the young conqueror's wife.  Despite the fact that he was almost ten years her junior, Charles pursued Josephine with impressive energy.  She was captivated. . . . "  (Stuart, 2011, p. 193)

Why him?:  "Whereas Napoleon was loving and sincere in his adoration for his new wife, he was solemn, serious and intense in his outlook.  Hippolyte Charles was the opposite: a young man in his mid twenties; handsome, outgoing, full of fun and extremely popular with the women in a social world in which he felt completely at ease.  He and Josephine became lovers during Napoleon's frequent absences."  (Only Love the Musical)

Aftermath: "Hippolyte and Josephine were to continue seeing each other, but when she learned that he had taken an Italian lover she was deeply upset. . . . " (Only Love the Musical)
Lazare Hoche
2) Lazare Hoche (1767-1797).
French general.
Lover in 1794.
a.k.a. Louis-Lazare Hoche.
Husband ofAdelaide Dechaux, Daughter of a grocery store keeper, mar 1794.

"...Josephine herself, before marrying Napoleon, had been the lover of a more famous revolutionary general, Lazare Hoche...." (McMillan, 2000, p. 36)

"Lazare Hoche, Rose's lover and fellow prisoner -- handsome, gallant, good-humoured, but also married. Hoche supported Rose through her darkest hours. Many felt that, had he been available, she would have married him in preference to Napoleon." (Stuart, 2011, p. 128]

First Encounter: " . . . While in prison, he met the widow of General de Beauharnais, Josephine de Beauharnais, who was to later become the wife of General Bonaparte. Trapped in the prison with uncertain fates, they allegedly became lovers and were not released until after the fall of Robespierre." (

Physical Traits & Personal Qualities:  ". . .  Tall, thin, straight, nervous, and high-chinned, his face scarred by a saber cut, he had a commanding presence and great courage.  Some obscure illness sapped his strength, but he never spared himself.  Originally coarse and dissolute, he steadily improved in character and knowledge... [H]e died suddenly in 1797." (Elting, 1997, p. 42)

Personal & Family Background:  "A grimmer figure was Louis-Lazare Hoche, whom Napoleon acknowledged 'a true man of war.'  Son of a groom in the King's stables, and assistant groom himself when he was tall enough, he enlisted in the French Guard in 1784. Like many of the Guard, he became an ardent revolutionist; unlike his comrades, he studied the military art.  On the dissolution of the French Guard he passed to the Regulars; a captain in 1792, he was a general a year later. . . . "  (Elting, 1997, p. 42)

Honours & Accomplishments:  Considered one of the best of the Revolutionary generals (Jensen); Assistant Stableman of the King (1782); French Guard (1784); Corporal (1789); Sergeant, National Guards (1791); Lieutenant (1792); Aide-de-Camp to Le Veneur (1793); Chef de Bataillon (1793); Chief of Staff to Souham & Chef de Brigade(1793);  General de Brigade (1793); Chief of Staff to the Army of the Ardennes (1793); General de Division & Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the Moselle (1793) (Jensen)

3) Napoleon I of the French.
Napoleon said that their first meeting came about due to his helping the young Eugene receiver his dead father's sword....Afterwards Josephine called to thank the general and he told his friends later that he found her 'seductive'. Several days later they met again at one of Paul Barras' dinner-parties; and then on a regular basis...."  (Horricks, 1995, p. 59)
4) Paul Barras (1755-1829)
French politician of the French Revolution
Physical Traits & Personal Qualities:  ". . .  She was a less conventional beauty than Madame Tallien, but no less alluring.  Tall and slender with wonderful breasts (which the light, filmy neo-Grecian dresses of the day showed off to perfection) she obviously moved with a good sense of her own body.  Her silky chestnut hair was regularly washed (setting a new, novel fashion), cut into ringlets and usually piled upwards and tied in a ribbon."  (Horricks, 1995, p. 58)

Spouses:  Josephine married 1) Alexandre de Beauharnais; and 2) in 1796, divorced 1809, Napoleon I, later Emperor of the French.  "Her first marriage to Alexandre de Beauharnais . . .  took place in 1779 and was unhappy from the outset, even though it resulted in the births of two children, Eugene and Hortense.  It also transported her from Martinique to the highest level of French society.  De Beauharnais was both mean and unfaithful, but he was popular at court and Josephine was twice received by Marie Antoinette at the Trianon. By the time of the Revolution the couple were legally separated, however both were thrown into prison.  De Beauharnais was guillotined and Josephine herself only escaped execution by four days:  due to the fall of Robespierre. . . . "  (Horricks, 1995, p. 58)

Benefits:  The divorce...came about in 1809... She retained the rank of 'Empress-Queen'.  Her annual income was the equivalent of L80,000 from public funds, plus L40,000 from Napoleon's own.  And he gave her Malmaison." (Horricks, 1995, p. 60[Ref1]

2) Marie-Louise von OsterreichEmpress of the French.
Her lover was:
Adam Albert von Neipperg.
[Bio2:Napoleon Sites]
"It is to be noted that at St. Helena Napoleon spoke in the most affectionate terms of his wife.  He alluded to her in his will as 'my dear Marie Louise,' and 'my very dear and well-beloved spouse.'  On the subject of this union Baron Meneval relates that the Austrian general who became the second husband of Marie Louise was the son of a Frenchman.  He says that 'while his father, Count Neipperg, filled a diplomatic mission in Paris, he made the acquaintance of a French officer of a distinguished family, and received him in the most familiar manner at his house.  The comtesse de Neipperg was not insensible to the merits of this gentleman, who was very assiduous, while the Comte de Neipperg paid very little attention to his wife, and left her mistress of her actions.  The consequence was a liaison between the countess and the young French officer, the fruit of which was a child, who afterwards became a general.  The proof of this fact is to be found in a letter which the general's mother addressed to the French officer, and which was found among his papers when he died." (The Marriages of the Bonapartes, Volume 1: 327-328)

Napoleon I of the French Gallery.
Napoleon Bonaparte
by Henri Felix Emmanuel Philippoteaux
Napoleon in Toulon
by Edouard Detaille, 1793
Bonaparte at the Bridge of Arcole
by Antoine-Jean Gros, 1796
@ Palace of Versailles
Napoleon Bonaparte as First Consul
by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, 1804-04
@ Musee des beaux-arts de Liege
Gallery of Napoleon I's Children.
Alexandre Walewski, 1832
by Sir George Hayter
Napoleon II, Duke of Reichstadt
Alexandre Colonna-Walewski
Eugen Alexander Megerle von Muhlfeld
Lithogaph by Adolf Dauthage, 1851
Jules Barthelemy-Saint-Hilaire
References for Napoleon I:
The Love Affairs of Napoleon @ Google Books.
Memoirs of the Life, Exile and conversations of the Emperor Napoleon @ Google Books
Napoleon - An Illustrated Life, Volume 1 @ Google Books
Napoleon: His Wives and Women @ Google Books.
Napoleon: Life, Legacy and Image: A Biography @ Google Books
Emperor of the french 1852-1870.
Son ofLouis Bonaparte, King of Holland & Hortense de Beauharnais.

Napoleon III's physical appearance & personal qualities.
  " . . . Official documents say that he had chatain hair and eyebrows, grey eyes, a small mouth, thick lips, a pointed chin, and oval face, broad shoulders, and that he stooped a little. Such was the Prince Louis Napoleon from 1840-1848. As Emperor he had changed but little. His blonde moustache had become longer, the pale colour of his face had turned a little yellow---but his eyes remained unchanged. . . ." ((Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 3)

" . . . Contemporaries were struck by the eyes of Napoleon III.  'They were eyes of enamel, without fire nor intelligence,' says a political writer of 1848.  Indeed-Napoleon's eyes were those of his mother Hortense.  They were small, of a bluish grey, and generally without expression---dreamy, and as if lost in space.  They fixed one as if through a glass, and seemed to have been covered with a veil of dreaminess and languour.  Yet those eyes could become marvellously animated when the Emperor was amuse, then they became caressing and lively.  His look pleased the women."  ((Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 3-4)
Eugenie de Montijo
Empress of the Frence
by Pierre-Desire Guillemet
or Teofil Kwiatkovski, 1853
@ Musee d'Orsay
Husband of:
Eugenie de Montijo (1826-1920)
16th Condesa de Teba, 15th Marquesa de Ardales.
a.k.a. Maria Eugenia Ignacia Augustina de Palafox Portocarrero de Guzman y Kirkpatrick, Carrots, Queen of Biarritz.
Notorious Virgin or What?:  " . . . She would give her body to Louis Napoleon for nothing less than marriage and, having failed to seduce her, he was obliged to marry her in 1853.  Curiously, Wilfrid Blunt, always ready to debunk a myth, contradicts the story of Eugenie's modesty, maintaining that the Duke of Sesto was among her lovers and that when the Emperor married her she had recently been the mistress of the Marquis d'Aguado."  (Mostyn, 2006, p. 11)[Ref1:Empress Eugenie]

Empress Eugenie's personal & family background: "Born on 5 May 1826 in Granada, Eugenie Ignacia Augustina was the daughter of Dona Maria Manuela Kirkpatrick, whose father, William Kirkpatrick of Dumfries in Scotland, had fled Scotland after the 1745 Stuart rebellion and settled in Andalusia.  Her father was almost certainly the Spanish Count of Teba, Don Cipriano de Guzman y Palafox y Portocarrero, the younger brother of Don Eugenio, Count of Montijo.  Gossip, however, murmured that Eugenie's father was either Lord Palmerston or Lord Clarendon until her mother wryly pointed out to Louis Napoleon, 'But, Sire, the dates don't correspond.' Nevertheless, influenced by the rumours, Queen Victoria's self-righteous consort Prince  Albert did not approve of Louis Napoleon's marriage to Eugenie, remarking to King Leopold of Belgium that 'she is said to be British on her father's as well as her mother's side' because 'Lord Clarendon is supposed to be her father.' But, morals apart, Manuela was, in the words of Eugenie's biographer Robert Sencourt, 'original and bewitching, with Andalusian grace, English gentleness, French facility; yet always a Spaniard. . .  She was one of those dauntless and glittering women who move as much by instinct as by stratagem towards the seats of power.  She scattered pleasures about her and made joy an obligation.' . . ." (Egypt's Belle Epoque: Cairo and the Age of Hedonists: 10-11)

A fonder of petticoats"Prosper Merimee wrote to Panizzi: 'He has the fault of being fonder of petticoats, than is proper for a young man of his age.' Napoleon was very much sought after by women, and he once said" 'Usually, it is man who attacks; as for me, I defend myself and I often capitulate.'" (The True Story of the Empress Eugenie: 81)

Marriage and conjugal affronts"Under the best of circumstances a couple may prove to be incompatible. The imperial marriage was initially constrained by the publicity of palace life, and the couple had none of the privacy of a honeymoon so often necessary for a good adjustment. The gap between their ages was significant if not insurmountable, approximately eighteen years, but the difference in sexual experience was more serious. Not only had Eugenie had none, but she had a profound ignorance of a husband's needs that even the passing years did not remedy. His infidelities began about six months of marriage. In every other respect he was a perfect husband, and she never had any doubt that he loved her. On the other hand, the 'conjugal affronts' that she began to experience were mortifying, especially since she could really not understand their reason. Her conception of a wife's role was only too clearly revealed in 1865 at a time when the imperial family was promoting the marriage of Anna Murat to Lord Granville, which Anna was resisting: 'Tell her,' the empress said to Walewski, 'that after the first night it makes no difference whether the man is handsome or ugly. By the end of the week it's the same old thin.' And she attributed the emperor's infidelities not to his sensual needs but to the monotony of his imperial situation of which she was a part. She brought him nothing new or fresh: So, man roams!' She did, however, manage to produce an heir to the throne. But after the birth of the prince imperial on March 16, 1856, which nearly killed the empress, her physicians told her that another pregnancy probably would be fatal.  his became the excuse to deny the emperor further secual relations. . . ." (The Mortal Napoleon III: 52-54)

A seeker after pleasure: "Yes, indeed he liked women, and no one could contradict the statement after having read the pages of his many-sided life.  This sentence makes a resume of his simple uncomplicated psychology.  All through the long days of misfortune, exile, and glory, which the most astonishing destiny dealt out to him, he was a seeker after pleasure.

He liked women like a Bonaparte, a Napoleon and an Emperor: In Switzerland he found tender melancholy decorated with Germanic tastelessness among the national beauties; in England, he restrained passion of the Sussex Brewer's daughter insinuated itself into his blood; and in Italy those electric, which corroded and burnt his marrow; and he met in France his beloved or Margot's lips---Margot, the comrade and friend of pleasure, whose lips were wet with champagne quaffed at the feasts of cruel Eros.  He tasted every pleasure, goaded on and enticed by the desire of the unknown and unforeseen, dreaming of a new Cythera, who was to be found at the end of every beaten track.  Not a single hope or joy was hidden from him.  He was  Bonaparte, a Napoleon, and an Emperor!  And he had the gift to make himself beloved.  And he used his gift abundantly. . . ."  (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 245)

A historical womanizer: "He has a historical reputation as a womanizer, yet he referred to his behaviour in the following manner: “It is usually the man who attacks. As for me, I defend myself, and I often capitulate.”

Napoleon III's numerous love affairs & mistresses: "Among his numerous love affairs and mistresses were:  his cousin Mathilde Bonaparte, Maria Anna Schiess, Alexandrine Éléonore Vergeot, laundress at the prison at Ham, mother of two of his sons, Elisa Rachel Felix, the “most famous actress in Europe“, Harriet Howard, wealthy and a major financial backer, Virginia Oldoini, Countess di Castiglione – spy, artist and famous beauty, sent by Camillo Cavour to influence the Emperor’s politics, Marie-Anne Waleska, Justine Marie Le Boeuf, also known as Marguerite Bellanger, actress and acrobatic dancer. Bellanger was falsely rumoured to be the illegitimate daughter of a hangman, and was the most universally loathed of the mistresses (though perhaps his favorite) and Countess Louise de Mercy-Argenteau, likely a platonic relationship, author of The Last Love of an Emperor, her reminiscences of her association with the emperor."  (nursemyra, 2011, May 10)

Napoleon was a noted voluptuary with an insatiable sexual appetite" . . . Emperor Napoleon III was a noted voluptuary who had enjoyed the attentions of numerous mistresses both before and after his marriage to Eugenie de Montijo ten years earlier. Among their ranks had been an Italian countess, Virginia de Castiglione, and Marianne de Walewska, the wife of his cousin, the Minister of State. His sexual appetite was said to be insatiable. Rumor had it that each evening a different woman was brought to the Palais de Tuileries, undressed in an anteroom, and escorted to the bed of His Imperial Majesty, who would exert himself until (in the words of one of these bedmates) 'the wax on the ends of his mustache melts, causing them to droop.' Whatever the truth of these stories, in the spring of 1863 he was certainly enjoying a dalliance with a twenty-three-year-old former dressmaker and circus rider named Justine Leboeuf, who called herself Marguerite Bellanger, dressed in men's clothes and lived in the house in which he had installed her in the pleasant suburb of Passy." (The Judgment of Paris: the Revolutionary Decade that Gave the World Impressionism: n.p.)

A womanizer of an imperial scale.
"Long before, Louis Napoleon had discovered that Eugenie took no pleasure in intimate marital relations---she called sex 'filthy.' For his part, he enjoyed the company of ladies of easy virtue, not to mention the wives of several of his senior officials, including that of Foreign Minister Walewski. This list of his conquests was not only long, it was public, including the companions and ladies-in-waiting of the empress. For all his charms and admitted interest in major social causes, including new hospitals, schools, and housing, Napoleon III was at the same time thick-skinned to the point of deeply wounding and publicly humiliating Eugenie. Harriet Howard and her children and his own prison-born bastards were long out of sight. But then there had been Augustine Brohan, Alice Ozy, Countess Parada, Countess de La Bedoyere, the Countess Walewska, Madame Rimsky-Korsakov, and now La Castiglione; and later, Marguerite Bellanger, Valtesse de la Bigne, and Countess Mercy-Argentau, without countng 'the actresses' and the ladies of the court. Louis Napoleon was indeed a womanizer of an imperial scale." (The Shadow Emperor: A Biography of Napoleon III)

Changes of fortune in the careers of the best-known mistresses"Kurz very interestingly sums up the changes of fortune in the careers of the Emperor's best-known mistresses: 'The vanished sun of Imperial favour was followed only by a chilling darkness. Miss Howard, dropped on the eve of the Emperor's marriage, lived on until 1865 in the vast chateau of Beauregard near Paris, where a suite of rooms was kept ready for the Emperor who never called. Mme de Castiglione returned to Paris, became involved with dubious bankers and murky manipulators, ending her days behind permanently closed shutters near the Place Vendome from which she ventured forth only after dark. Mme Walewska, after the death of her husband in 1868, declined into a bourgeois marriage, and Marguerite Bellanger later led a penitent life of the greatest respectability and charity. For all these, normal life ended with their fall from the dangerous heights to which the Emperor had briefly raised them. He was always generous, making their material existend easy, but he forgot them, and so did the world.'" (The Affairs of Women: A Modern Miscellany: 27)

His lovers were:
1) Alice Ozy (1820-1893)
French actress, singer & courtesan
a.k.a. born Julie-Justine Pilloy, Madame Pilloy, the Modern Aspasia.
Daughter ofJean-Baptiste Pilloys (1792-1844) & Charlotte Amedee Ozi (1792-1841) mar 1814-1820.

. . . Ozy counted among her lovers not only the emperor Napoleon III and princelings, but the greatest French novelist of the nineteenth century, Victor Hugo and his son. Like Marie Duplessis, Ozy too was drawn by Vincent Vidal." (The Real Traviata: The Song of Marie Duplessis: 133)

2) Armance Depuille (1830-1913)
Wife ofFrancois-Isidore Depuille.
Natural offspring1. Benoni Depuille.

3) Caroline-Frederique-Bernardine Hamakers (1836-1912)
French singer
a.k.a. Caroline Hamaekers.
" . . . There are those women who loved hint for an hour or less -- for his purse -- or his feelings -- and the State register will satisfy curiosity.  There was Caroline Frederique Bernardine Hamalkers, the celebrated singer.  Her father was an old soldier of Austerlitz, who kept an inn at Louvain.  She was born 1836 in that sad little Belgian town of colleges and convents.  There were six young sisters clattering about in sabots in the paternal hostelry.  Eugene Scribe induced her to leave, and was the means of her entering the opera. This was in 1857.  The Duc de Morny noticed her, and she had not real reason for being cruel to him any more than to Auber and others.  She was one of the choir of the Chapel of the Tuileries -- and was intimate with Napoleon III.  She received some emeralds from him, and kept them quite a long time.  When she was old, and going over her experiences, and telling only what her lately-acquired modesty permitted, she confessed:  'He amused himself with me as with a child, but there was nothing serious.'  And really, she arrived and passed on.  Success was hers up to 1870.  Then she outlived herself, and age came and trouble with it.  In 1912 Mlle. Hamalkers threw herself out of the window of her house, No. 62, rue Franklin, Brussels.  She was taken, Oct. 23, 1912, to the Hospital Saint-Jean; she renewed her efforts to commit suicide, cutting her throat with a piece of broken glass.  She was dead on the morrow. She was placed in her coffin, lined with white satin and covered with chrysanthemums by friends who knew her coquettish disposition.  What a touching novel could be written on mistresses grown old and wretched! (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 247-249)
La Comtesse de La Bedoyere
nee Clothilde de La Rochelambert 
Maid-of-honour to Empress Eugenie
by Paul-Jacques-Aime Baudry, 19th century
@ Institution Musee national du chateau de Compiegne
4) Clothilde de la Rochelambert, Comtesse de la Bedoyere (1829-1884)
a.k.a. Clotilde-Josephine-Gabrielle de La Rochelambert.
Lover in 1858-1859.
Wife of:
1. Comte de la Bedoyere mar 1849
2. Napoleon-Henri-Edgar Ney, General Prince de Moskowa, mar 1867,
"Upon this scene of splendour Mme. Clotilde de la Bedoyere shed her more modest light.  She was the wife of one of the court Chamberlains, whom Vieil-Castel does not spare in his severe criticisms.  'He was the most stupid, the dirtiest and fattest of men,' or the most simple-minded of men, absolutely incapable of any work.  Such shortcomings, however, were easily excused by the charm and grace of Mme. de la Bedoyere, 'that flower of balls and soirees.'  At the beginning of the year 1858 she enjoyed the amorous favour of Napoleon III, but in October already the Emperor tried to get rid of her.  In March, 1859, she was decidedly 'a retired Sultana.'  I shall ignore, and, indeed, I confess that I actually ignore, and, indeed, I confess that I actually ignore, the services for which the Emperor appointed M. de la Bedoyere, he says: 'His father was shot in 1815, and his wife slept with Napoleon III.' These lines did not yet satisfy him, and he adds:'His wife was unfaithful, and having slept with the Emperor, her husband became Knight of the Legion of Honour and Senator. . . ." (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 262)
Egle Ney de la Moskowa
Duchesse de Persigny
5) Egle Ney de la Moskowa, Duchesse de Persigny (1832-1890)
a.k.a. nee Albine-Maria-Napoleone-Egle Ney de la Moskowa, Duchesse Egle de Persigny, Egle-Napoleone-Albine, Princesse de la MoskowaEgle Napoleone-Albine Ney, Princesse de la Moskowa Persigny, Egle Napoleone Albine Ney, Princesse de la Moskowa Villelume-Sombreuil.
Daughter ofJoseph-Napoleon Ney d'Elchingen, Prince de la Moskowa & Albine-Etiennette-Marguerite Laffitte.
Victor Fialin
Duc de Persigny
Wife of:1. Jean-Gilbert-Victor Fialin (1808-1872), Duc de Persigny
French Minister of Interior.
a.k.a. Victor de Persigny.
married 1852.
2. Hyacinthe-Hilaire-Adrien Le Moyne (d.1879) married 1873.
3. Charles de Villelume-Sombreuil, Comte de Villelume-Sombreuil (1861-1912).
"Here again is a well-known name, that of Mme. de Persigny.  Her name was Egle Napoleone Albine Ney, and she was born in 1832; her father was Joseph Napoleon Ney, son of the Ney of Moscow, and her mother was Marie Etienne Albine Laffitte, daughter of that Jacques Laffitte famous as President of the Council of Ministers under the Monarchy of July.  She was a very beautiful and elegant woman, fair, and had a natural lisp, which gave her a speech something almost childlike.  She married Persigny May 27, 1852. . .  Napoleon III favoured his marriage, and gave him 1,000,000 francs, it appears to enable him to settle down.  The Emperor also gave the bride 500,000 francs of lace and diamonds. the marriage, in spite of the eccentric temper of the lady and the grave demeanour of her husband, was quite happy in the beginning. . . ." (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 254)

"Even so, 1852 was Persigny's year.  He became Minister of the Interior in January, saw the birth of the Second Empire on December 2nd, and was named to the Senate on the last day of the year.  Furthermore, on May 27th, he married Albine-Marie-Napoleone-Egle Ney de la Moskova, granddaughter of Marshal Ney.  No once could ever claim that the Comte de Persigny was not devoted to dynastic principles.  But, if he brought a splendidly Napoleonic name under his roof, he did not marry a reputation as lofty as the name.  Happily for him, he was too blinded by his wife's name to know the extent of her later infidelities, though they were common knowledge and offered much amusement to the court society.  Mme. de Persigny was also known for her love of English ways, and behind her back was called Lady Persington.  She was the mistress of the Duc de Gramont-Caderousse, a roue much frowned upon by his prominent family; and her taste for embassy clerks, when her husband served as Ambassador to Britain, gave rise to the following anecdote:  'Mme. de Persigny is lost; it is impossible to find her,'  'Well, have you looked carefully under all the furniture?  The tables, buffets, and secretaries?'" (Gaslight and Shadow: The World of Napoleon III, 1851-1870: 18-19)

6) Eleonore-Marie Brault (1808-1849)
French singer
"His first mistress was a Parisienne, by the name of Eleonore-Marie Brault, a singer, married to Archer Gordon, a Colonel of the Florentine Legion in the service of Isabella II of Spain.  In connection with the preparations for the Strasburg attempt of 1836 she proved herself one of the most skilful (sic) and devoted of the future Emperor's allies.  He had one daughter by her; she married and lived in England.  Eleonore-Marie Brault died in 1849." (The True Story of the Empress Eugenie: 77)

"The heroine of this romance was Eleonora Marie Brault.  She was born in Paris on September 6, 1808, and her father was a Captain of the Imperial Guards. Educated in a Convent in the Rue de Sevres, she left it and went to live with her father at Barcelona.  I do not know whether this gallant warrior loved music and the theatre, but I can affirm that his daughter loved them passionately.  At the Conservatoire in Paris she found two eminent masters of the period, Ponchard and Banderali.  She also found Rossini, who gratuitously gave her a few lessons. It is rather surprising that after this preparation she should enter the Odeon. This distant dramatic temple was on the brink of ruin.  What did poor Eleonora go there for? The Odeon soon closed its doors.  Eleonora sold all she possessed and the same day left for Milan.  Charming city!  There at least they loved music ardently.  Eleonora found there a paradise and perhaps also a few Seraphims in the shape of generous and magnificent lovers, and for twenty months she was the delight of Milan, and in all probability of a few Milanese lovers of art.  From Milan she went to Venice.  But alas@ What are Venice and Milan to those who have already tasted the delicious fruit of perdition offered by Paris.  In spite of her remembrance of the Odeon she crossed the Alps, and one beautiful evening, in 1831, she appeared at the Theatre des Italiens.  Her debut was far from brilliant, so much so that she crossed the Channel and went to London.  If not artistically successful in the English metropolis, she at least found a husband there in the person of Sir Gordon Archer, a gentleman of condition attached to the Anglo-Spanish legation.  In December, 1831, whilst walking in St James's Park she was struck in the face by some unknown person, evidently greatly excited and jealous of her!  This adventure made her disgusted with old, free England, and she returned to the Continent where she continued her dramatic tours of Paris, Naples, Rome, Florence, and Strasburg.  On March 7, 1836, she became a widow, her husband, the estimable Sir Gordon Archer having died of typhus at Vittoria." (Napoleon III and the Women He loved: 29-31)

Eleonore-Marie's physical appearance & personal qualities:  " . . . 'She was remarkable for her charming person; her mind corresponded to her beauty; she was active, intriguing, her manners doubtful; and having no money, she offered all the conditions which go to make an easy instrument of a being endowed with reason.' . . . ." (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 33)

7) Eleonore Vergeot (1820-1866)
a.k.a. Alexandrine Vergeot, Alexandrine-Eleonore Vergeot-Camus, la Belle SabotiereMadame Sans Gene.

"Only between 1840 and 1846, when Louis-Napoleon was at Ham, do we find satisfactory evidence of his amours. His laundress, Alexandrine Eleonore Vergeot, bore him two sons. As she later married a man named Bure, both children were given his name. The elder was Alexandre-Louis-Eugene, born February 25, 1843; the younger was Alexandre-Louis-Ernest, born March 18, 1845. Bure himself, during the Second Empire, was given a minor bureaucratic post in the imperial household. As for the two boys, an imperial decree of June 11, 1870, created the elder Comte d'Orx, the younger Comte de Lebenne, the titles themselves being created to represent new estates in the reclaimed areas of Les Landes. Both men served briefly in the bureaucracy of the Second Empire, Lebenne dying without heir in 1882, Orx living until 1910." (The Mortal Napoleon III: 50)

"During his imprisonment at the Chateau de Ham, Louis-Napoleon contrived to carry on an intrigue with Alexandrine-Eleonore Vergeot, who washed his linen. She became the mother of two sons by the Prince: the elder became Count d'Orx and the younger Count de Labenne."  (The True Story of the Empress Eugenie: 80-81)

" . . . Of course, on examination there is neither a sabot-maker, nor a Marguerite Bayeux.  Marguerite really was Eleonor Vergeot, and her father was a weaver.  She was born September 3, 1820, at Estouilly, in the neighbourhood of Ham.  She was a servant girl hired by the day to work for some unimportant people, and was to have married a house painted, who left her to run after someone else."  (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 76)

"The Prince at least loved more discreetly, and his liaison with the 'belle Sabotiere' terminated less tragically.  I do not know why she was called 'la belle Sabotiere.'  That must be an invention of the pamphleteers of the second Empire. . . ." (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 76)

"...In particular, a thoughtful prison commander saw to it that there other consolations. The young woman was the Prince's laundress, Eleonore Veugeot-Camus, became his mistress and presented him with two sons, Eugene, born in May 1843, and Louis, born in 1845...." (Smith, 2007, p. 116)

Eleonore Vergeot's physical appearance & personal qualities:  " . . . She was a good-looking girl, strong and healthy, with chestnut hair and blue eyes." (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 77)

Natural Offspring of Eleonore Vergeot and Napoleon III.
"Only between 1840 and 1846, when Louis-Napoleon was at Ham, do we find satisfactory evidence of his amours.  His laundress, Alexandrine Eleonore Vergeot, bore him two sons.  As she later married a man named Bure, both children were given his name.  The elder was Alexandre-Louis-Eugene, born February 25, 1843; the younger was Alexandre-Louis-Ernest, born March 18, 1845.  Bure himself, during the Second Empire, was given a minor bureaucratic post in the imperial household.  As for the two boys, an imperial decree on June 11, 1870, created the elder Comte d'Orx, the younger Comte de Labenne, the titles themselves being created to represent new estates in the reclaimed areas of Les Landes.  Both men served briefly in the bureaucracy of the Second Empire, Labenne dying without heir in 1882, Orx living until 1910." (The Mortal Napoleon III: 50)
1. Alexandre-Louis-Eugene Bure, Comte d'Orx (1843-1910)
" . . . Eugene Vergeot was Under-secretary at the French Embassy at St. Petersburg, where he carried off an actress, the mistress of the Ambassador.  I cannot guarantee the truth of the anecdote, but I do know that in 1864, when he was twenty-one years old, the Emperor gave him a pension of 6,000 francs. At that time he was then in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. . . ."

" . . . (H)e was named Vice-Consul at Rosas, and in 1868 Consul at Zanzibar.  The Emperor did even more that this.  He created him, in 1869, Comte d'Orz, from the name of the estate in Landes which he had given him. . . ."

". . . The Comte d'Orx married in France, Mlle. Volpette, 'of an excellent Belgian family, and died J, 1910, in his Chateau des Castets, at Saint Andre de Seignaux'. . .  . "

2. Louis-Ernest-Alexandre Bure, Comte de Labenne (1845-1882)

8) Elisabeth Hugenschmidt (1825-1915)
Natural offspring1. Arthur Hugenschmidt (1862-1929)
Elisabeth-Ann Haryett
by Henriette Cappelaere, 1850
@ Chateau de Compiegne
Musee du Second Empire
British actress, banker & royal mistress.
Lover in 1846-1853.
a.k.a. Elizabeth Ann Haryett, Elizabeth Howard, Harriet Howard, Mrs. Howard.
Daughter ofJoseph Harryett, A waiter & boot maker & the granddaughter of the owner of the Castle Hotel in Brighton.
Wife ofCaptain Clarence Trelawny, English horse breeder, mar 1854, div 1865
Her other lovers were1. A.W. Kinglake; 2. Jem Mason, British jockey, Lover in 1838; 3. Major Mountjoy Martyn, British army officer.

Comtesse de Beauregard's personal & family background: "Elizabeth Ann Haryett, better known as Miss Howard, was the daughter of Joseph Harryett, a waiter, who lived at No. 22 Hanover Crescent, Brighton and grand-daughter of the Harryett who, with one Gibburd, kept the old Castle Hotel, Brighton. In her youth she was employed in a livery stable in the capacity of riding mistress, and in this way she came into contact with those well-known people through whom she achieved fame. She became successively the mistress of a steeplechase rider, of Major Mountjoy Martyn, A. W. Kinglake, and Louis Napoleon, whom she met at a ball given by Lady Blessington. Kinglake and Louis Napoleon quarrelled over her; hence, it is said, the merciless character of Chapter XIV of his 'Invasion of the Crimes. Miss Howard not only financed the Prince in 1848 before his election to the Presidency, but for some years after, when she lived in Paris. She subsequently travelled with him and was often seen at his side on public occasions. When in 1855 he married Eugenie, she received the farewell gifts of 250,000 pounds, the Beauregard Estate, near Versailles, and the title of Countess de Beauregard. In 1854 she married Mr. Clarence Trelawney, whose father, Mr. Brereton Trelawny, came of an old Cornish family. At the time of their marriage, her husband was an officer in the Austrian army. Some years later they were divorced by a decree of the French Courts, and Trelawney married the daughter of the British Consul at Munich. In 1861 he shot himself, leaving his widow and five daughters in needy circumstances. Miss Howard had one son, Count de Bechevet, who did not enjoy a good reputation. On the day of his coming of age, at a fete at Beauregard, he asked his mother, in front of all the guests: 'Maintenant que je suis majeur, Madame, peut-etre daigneriez-vous nom de mon pere?' In reply, she slapped his face.She died at Beauregard, aged forty-one. Before her death she adjured the Protestant religion, and was received into the Roman Church.  She was buried in Chesney cemetery, the nearest village to Beauregard. She had always been very charitable, allowing her parents 840 pounds per annum, besides giving large sums to the poor, of whom a great number followed her coffin.  Her tombstone bears the inscription: 'Elizabeth Ann Harryett, dite Miss Howard, nee en Angleterre 1823.'  Her son, Count de Bechevet, died leaving one son and two daughters, whose disputes over his will were not finally settled by the Courts until 1908." (The True Story of the Empress Eugenie: 80)

"Her exact origin is not known. In the registers of the parish of La Celle-Saint-Cloud, she is described as Elizabeth Anna Haryett, called Miss Howard, Countess de Beauregard, born in England in 1823. This must be wrong, for it would make her only seventeen years old at the time of the Boulogne affair. Her grandson was registered as Richard Martyn Haryett, whence one may infer that Haryett was a surname. Count Fleury says that at the time when Napoleon made her acquaintance in London, she was living there under the protection of Major Mountjoy Martyn, of the 2nd Life Guards."  (The True Story of the Empress Eugenie: 78)

First encounter: "Count Fleury says in his Memoirs that when Napoleon was in England, Count d'Orsay, the famous dandy, made him acquainted with Miss Howard, and he was immediately fascinated by her great beauty. According to those who knew her in London, she had then an exquisite figure, at once stately and graceful, with features such as only one of the great Greek sculptors could have chiselled. Subsequently she became extremely stout, but even then her head retained a great deal of its former beauty." (The True Story of the Empress Eugenie: 77-78)

Secret trysting place: "In 1848 Miss Howard followed Napoleon to Paris, where she lived at the Hotel Meurice, then the English hotel par excellence. Thence she went to occupy a house in the rue du Cirque, close to the Elysee. Napoleon used to leave the palace through a small door opening on to the rue de Cirque, cross the road, open another door and find himself in Miss Howard's apartment, where he often met people of consequence, including that great aesthete, the Marquess of Hertford."  (The True Story of the Empress Eugenie: 78-79)

A wealthy English mistress: "To many Englishmen, Charles Louis Napoleon, forty-four, was a charismatic figure. He was not only the nephew of a legendary hero but a man who had survived by his wits and accomplished the impossible. He had lived in conspiratorial exile in England, had English friends in high places, and even a wealthy English mistress, Elizabeth Howard, whom he was not prepared to discard. Both Victoria and Albert despised him as a vulgarian and immoralist, but neither disability ruled him out any more than his politically necessary Roman Catholicism, as husband for their niece less than half his age, if he were the means of making 'Ada' an empress and creating yet another rapprochement with historically inimical France." (Uncrowned King: The Life of Prince Albert: 279)

Real father of Elizabeth Haryett's son: "The maitresse en titre during those years was, in fact, the well-known Miss Howard. Louis-Napoleon had met her in England before the events that led to Ham, she visited him there, and she retained her position during his presidential years. On August 16, 1842, she gave birth to Martin-Constantin Haryett, and it has been logically assumed by many that Louis-Napoleon was the father, especially since he created Haryett Comte de Bechevet in 1865. It is well established now that Major Mountjoy Martyn was the actual father, and Haryett's creation was more a gesture of regard to the then discarded Miss Howard than an admission of responsibility. Besides Miss Howard during the presidential years, along run of actresses supposedly had access to the president; but we are forced to doubt the validity of much of the gossip.  he separation between Louis-Napoleon and Miss Howard was painful for both of them but made necessary by his impending marriage. A separation contract, signed in 1852, provided her with title and income, and she tried to fulfill her responsibilities under the contract by seeking an English husband. Finally, in mid-1854, she married Clarence Trelawny, the second son of a great landed proprietor." (The Mortal Napoleon III: 51-52)

End of affair & aftermath: "Miss Howard, who aspired to the role of La Pompadour, thought that Napoleon would marry her, and when she learned about his projected union with Eugenie, she was furious and threatened to made a scandal. . . Her wrath was assuaged by the counter-threat of imprisonment. She was obliged to keep quiet, which she did whole-heartedly when her former lover purchased for her the Chateau de Beauregard at La Celle-Saint-Cloud, for which he paid 5,000,000 francs, and made her a Countess. The liaison lasted from 1846 to 1853.  In 1854, she married an Englishman named Clarence Trelawny." (The True Story of the Empress Eugenie: 79)

Benefits"Before his marriage, Napoleon III had a favourite, Mrs. Howard, to whom he had been much attached when in London, and who is said to have materially aided her lover when he first ventured to Paris with few friends and scanty means. She had a son who received the title of count---the Comte Bechevet, and when the liaison terminated, she received an Imperial pension and the magnificent chateau of Beauregard, near Paris...."  (The Marriages of the Bonapartes, Volume 2: 339)

Chateau de Beauregard (north facade) in La Celle St. Cloud
pictured in 1872 when it was owned by
Baron Maurice de Hirsch
@ Wikipedia
Eugenie de Montijo
Empress of the French
by Pierre-Desire Guillemet
or Teofil Kwiatkovski, 1853
@ Musee d'Orsay
10) Eugenie de Montijo (1826-1920)
Eugenie's personal & family background:  "Mademoiselle Eugenie de Montijo, Countess de Teba was a daughter of one of the most illustrious families of Spain.  The House of Guzman traces back its origin to the earliest days of the Spanish monarchy, and counts among its heroes the famous Alonzo Perez de Guzman, who, being governor of Talifa in 1291, allowed the Moors to decapitate his son rather than give up the citadel.  Hence the device of the House---'Mas pesa el rey que la sangue.'  The families of Medina-Coeli, Las Torres, Medina, Sidonia, and Olivares are, like the Montijo family, branches of the Guzmans.  There is, moreover, royal blood in the De Montijo race. Mademoiselle Eugenie was grandniece of Alfonso X.  Nor was this lady the first Guzman to sit upon a throne.  In the seventeenth century Dona Luiza Francisca de Guzman married the Duke of Braganza, afterwards King Juan IV of Portugal.  The Counts de Montijo, moreover, descend from the royal House of Acuna.  Count Victor de Hamel, in his history of the Spanish monarchy, remarks that 'the great and Illustrious Porto-Carrero, Counts de Montijo (one of whom was the famous cardinal who, under Charles II of Austria, exercised so powerful an influence over the destinies of Spain), descend in direct male line from the ancient patrician family who, in 1339, gave Genoa her first Doge.'  Dona Maria Francisca de Porto-Carrero was a De Montijo.  A Doge of Genoa, a Queen of Portugal, and a King Leon of the Asturias and Galicia, as well as illustrious soldiers and churchmen, were, then, among the ancestry of the beautiful lady with the hair which Titian loved who had consented to share the throne of Napoleon III.  Her father, the Count de Montijo, had fought with great distinction under Napoleon. Having rallied to the cause of King Joseph, he distinguished himself and was wounded at Salamanca, and was with the French army in 1814.  It was to Colonel de Montijo, colonel of artillery, that Napoleon confided the fortification of Pris when the city was menaced by the Allies in 1814; and it was he who, at the head of the Polytechnic School, was appointed to defend the Buttes Chaumont.  Persecuted and imprisoned under Ferdinand VII for his participation in the wars of the Empire, he was one of the first grandees who were called to the Senate when Spain recovered her liberties.  A thorough Liberal, a man of enlightened views, rich, and with a hand always open to the appeals of charity, and married, as we have seen, to a lady of extraordinary merit, his house in Madrid was the resort of the most cultivated society.  So much for the paternal ancestry of the Emperor's affianced bride." (The Life of Napoleon III: Derived from State Records, Volume 3: 419-420)

Notorious Virgin or What?:  " . . . She would give her body to Louis Napoleon for nothing less than marriage and, having failed to seduce her, he was obliged to marry her in 1853.  Curiously, Wilfrid Blunt, always ready to debunk a myth, contradicts the story of Eugenie's modesty, maintaining that the Duke of Sesto was among her lovers and that when the Emperor married her she had recently been the mistress of the Marquis d'Aguado."  (Mostyn, 2006, p. 11)[Ref1:Empress Eugenie]

"Napoleon's discerning gaze had been attracted by her on the occasion of their meeting in the drawing-room of his handsome cousin the Princess Mathilde." (Loliee, 2012, p. 35)

"...The second way James sought to ingratiate himself with Napoleon was by championing the cause of the half-Spanish, half-Scottish adventuress Eugenie de Montijo, who more snobbish Parisians assumed would merely be Napoleon's next mistress.  Napoleon had been introduced to her in 1850 and by the end of 1852 was infatuated; when his plans foundered for a diplomatic marriage to Princess Adelaide of Hohenlohe (one of Victoria's nieces) he impulsively resolved to marry her---to the dismay of his ministers."  (Ferguson, 2000, n.p.)

Empress Eugenie's lovers were:
1. Napoleon III of the French.
"...The second way James sought to ingratiate himself with Napoleon was by championing the cause of the half-Spanish, half-Scottish adventuress Eugenie de Montijo, who more snobbish Parisians assumed would merely be Napoleon's next mistress.  Napoleon had been introduced to her in 1850 and by the end of 1852 was infatuated; when his plans foundered for a diplomatic marriage to Princess Adelaide of Hohenlohe (one of Victoria's nieces) he impulsively resolved to marry her---to the dismay of his ministers."  (Ferguson, 2000, n.p.)

2. Jose Isidro Osorio y de Silva, 8th Duque de Sesto.
" . . . Curiously, Wilfrid Blunt, always ready to debunk a myth, contradicts the story of Eugenie's modesty, maintaining that the Deke of Sesto was among her lovers and that when the Emperor married her she had recently been the mistress of the Marquis d'Aguado." (Egypt's Belle Epoque: 11)

3. Marques de Aguado.

11) La Petite Pomeyrae.
" . . . On the 24th June, 1861, Viel-Castel speaks of the daughter of the painter Pomeyrae, who had the honour to receive 25,000 francs for having spent the night with the Emperor.  La petite Pomeyrae is much sought after. . . ." (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 252)

12) Lady C.
" . . . His last favourite before Sedan was a certain Lady C.  She had been the mistress of a gallant man, who loved her.  she was unfaithful to him and he left her.  Thanks to 'secret services which she rendered,' she entered the Tuileries, where the master saw and desired her.  As she was there for the purpose of being seen and desired, she did not lose time in negotiations, and quickly accepted the offer which was made to her.  The Imperial romance lasted only a short time.  The nose of the cannon of Sedan exploded over France with the smoke of bombardments.  For Lady C. the reign of inconsolate shadow!  She had been one of the last favourites of the Emperor, and she still shows in her house a cup out of which Napoleon III drank his coffee at Chalons, and also the diamond necklace which the Imperial lover had wound round her neck one evening at Fontainbleau.  after this liaison no other romance has existed, for it was not from women, their brief tenderness and fleeting loves, that the vanquished Emperor expected consolation after his failure." (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 264-265)

13) Lodzia Bogaslawa Zelewska, Madame Feydeau (1835-?)
a.k.a. Leocadie Boguslawa Zalewska.
Natural offspring1. Georges Feydeau (1862-1921), French author

14) Madame Chanteaud.
" . . . And who was Mme. Chanteaud, by whom Napoleon III had a daughter, who became Comtese de Molen de la Vernede? . . . ."  (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 248)

15) Madame de Brimont.
" . . . And again Mme. de Brimont, a countess it seems, introduced to him by the Prince Napoleon. If Mme. de Brimont had any intimate acquaintance with Napoleon, her liaison with him not special influence on the life of the sovereign. But I said I was going to write of the past mistresses of the Emperor, and Mme. de Brimont was one of them. She held a salon, rue du Corque, which was soon empty, because people were so bored by her. Under M. de Thiers and the late Marshal, she tried again, but in vain. . . ."  (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 248)

16) Madame de Malaret.
" . . . Mme. de Malaret, lady in waiting on the Empress, is better known.  In Feb., 1853, the report is spread throughout the Faubourg Saint-Germain that she is resigning her post so as not to be obliged to reject the Emperor's proposals.  'I do not know,' says Viel-Castel, in echoing the report, ' if Mme. de Malaret is sending in her resignation, but I do know that she is not the woman to be afraid of such proposals, and that her virtue was surprised not long ago and conquered by the advances of Colonel Fleury, to whom she not only held out her arms, but her charms also, and let herself be overcome.'"  (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 250-251)

17) "Madame de xxv".
" . . . To this list we must add also a literary woman, whose name is not given, who offered her works to the Emperor with warm dedications.  Would this mbe that Mme. de xxv, author of Une Saison a Paris, about whom Prosper Merimee wrote to his unknown lady:  'She is a person full of candour, who has a great desire to please His Majesty, and who at a ball told him so in such plain words that you are the only person in the world who would not have understood them.  He was so astonished that at first he could find nothing to say, and it was only after three days that he consented.' . . . ."  (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 252)

18) Madame Drouyn de Thuys.
" . . . There is serious authority, however, which permits us to add other names to the authentic list of the mistresses of Napoleon III.  Mme. Drouyn de Thuys, the wife of the minster, in whom he was interested, and who was removed from partaking of the honours offered at the Tuileries by coming into conflict with the Empress. . . ."  (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 247-248)

19) Madame Greville.
" . . . April 21, it is 'pretty Mme. Greville,' with whom at Mme. Walewska's ball the Emperor spends an hour.  And then, before unmasking, in order to let her know he was the Emperor, he spoke about his portrait which was on the walls, and when she showed her doubt, he said to her, 'Do you see that little room? Only the Emperor and the Empress may go into it.'  And he went in.  This action probably was sufficient to convince Mme. Greville.  We see her again at a ball on March 7, 1859, flirting with the Emperor, and this brought upon Napoleon III a scene with Mme. X, who was jealous. . . ."  (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 251-252)

20) Mademoiselle Alexandre.
" . . . A police report of February 7, 1854, says:  'There is much talk about a certain Mlle. Alexandre, who is, for the time being, the Emperor's favourite.' Whence comes this lady?  A mystery. . . ."  (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 250)
Marguerite Bellanger
by Photograph A.A.E. Disderi, Paris
@ Ron Sheeley collection
21) Marguerite Bellanger (1838-1886)
French stage actress, acrobatic dancer, courtesan & royal mistress.
Lover in 1863.
a.k.a. Julie-Justine-Marine, Julie Leboeuf, Justine-Marie Le Boeuf.
Daughter ofFrancois Laboeuf & Julie Hanot.
Wife ofWilliam Louis Kulbach, British army officer.
Natural offspring1. Charles Leboeuf (1864-1941), a.k.a. Charles-Jules-Auguste-Francois-Marie.
"On February 24, 1864, at half-past ten at night, Marguerite Bellanger gave birth to a son, whose birth was not declared until two days had gone by, when the declaration was made in very equivocal terms." (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 224)

Marguerite Bellanger's physical appearance & personal qualities:  "The mid-century fashion for thinness . . . was also advanced by Napoleon III's current mistress Marguerite Bellanger, who was '[b]elow average in size, slight, thin, almost skinny.'  Significantly, the author of Les courtisanes du Second Empire identified Marguerite Bellanger as the most famous camelia of the day. Her nom de guerre was said to have been inspired by Dumas' heroine, and she was renowned for wearing daisies (marguerites) . . .  Born Julie Marie Lebouef, in the village of Ville-Bernier, by 1858 she had settled in Paris and assumed her pseudonym.  In the early 1860s, she allied herself with the lorettes on the Avenue de la Motte-Picquet near the Ecole Militaire, and became a favorite of military officials and the imperial guard." (Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide: A Journal of Nineteenth Century Visual Culture)

" . . . They say she was 'simply tempting,' and it is not to be denied that she enjoyed the health and vigour of her native village---her blond beauty and frank face, rather thick ankles and deformed, 'ugly' to look at, such natural flexibility that when lying flat on her back she could rise in one spring. She had no pedigree and looked more like a 'grisette' than a 'cocotte,' but the Society she was going to enter would be able to teach her very quickly all the means by which women who are destined to madden men by the beauty of their bodies conquer."  (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 211-212)

First encounter:  "While there are many accounts---some most likely romantic exaggerations---of the beginning of their affair, Marguerite appears to have met Napoleon III in the early 1860s.  Baron d'Ambes, in his memoirs, describes a conversation he had with Napoleon III at Vichy on 4 July 1861.  'Scarcely was he indoors when he confided to me his impressions by the way and asked me if there was anything in the nature of fun to be found.  The question struck me as disquieting.  He mentioned the fair Marguerite with a laugh.  'The reference was to Mlle Bellanger, the Emperor's mistress at this period.  Hector Fleischmann's Napoleon III and the Women He Loved does not date the relationship's origin, but his chronology suggests it was in the early 1860s." (Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide: A Journal of Nineteenth Century Visual Culture)

Benefits:  ". . . The Emperor kept Marguerite in the style of a princess.  Dogs, carriages, jewellery, and a magnificent palace on the Avenue de la Reine Hortense, were her portion given by the Emperor."  (Landon, 1871, p. 345)[Ref3:53]

Marguerite Bellanger's other lovers:  " . . . At Nantes, for example, the city of her debut so to speak, when she put up at the Hotel de France, she had the best possible reception from her former friends.  She caused no scandal at the Hippodrome at Mauves, and everything was so satisfactory that she returned again to Nantes, and fell in love with a young man who hid her in a house in the rue de la Fosse, where Brichet the armourer lived.  This kind of thing touched her.  It seems almost certain, according to what was said by one of her friends, that even during the period of her liaison with the Emperor she kept up her relations with her former lover, one of the Equerries to the Emperor, and apparently the very man who had introduced her to the Emperor.  This favoured lover went to the Rue des Vignes discreetly and secretly to take his 'share of the pleasures due to this devotion and savoir faire'. . . ." (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 320-321)

Marguerite Bellanger: Mistress to the Emperor Napoleon III, 1840-1886.

22) Marie-Clotilde-Elisabeth-Louise de RiquetComtesse de Mercy-Argenteau (1837-1890)
a.k.a. Louise de Mercy-Argenteau.
Lover in 1866-1870.
"Marguerite Bellanger was the last maitresse en titre in Napoleon III's life, but not the last woman. That honor beloned to the Comtesse Louise de Mercy-Argenteau, born a princess of the hose of Caraman-Chimay in 1837. . . ." (The Mortal Napoleon III: 71)

23) Maria Anna Schiess (1812-1880)
Natural offspring1. Bonaventure Karrer (1839-1921)
"How many children Napoleon III. actually begotten, is historically difficult to understand. The nephew Napoleon I was a great philanderer throughout his life. Thus, numerous love affairs can be attested during his stay on Lake Constance. Nobleman, bourgeois or peasant: Louis Bonaparte knew in his amorous adventures no barriers. So he also maintained a relationship with a certain Maria Anna Schiess from Allensbach, which has been handed down. A beauty with Titian hair, whose ancestors came from Andalusia. In 1839 her illegitimate son sees the world: his name "Bonaventur" ("beautiful adventure"). Louis, known for the generous support of his illegitimate children, probably equips Maria Anna Schiess with money. So she is capable In spite of an illegitimate child and her age of 41 years, to marry the 14 years younger Meinrad Karrer. "This Bonventur is my great-great-grandfather," says Wolfgang Stössel and shows his ancestral pass as proof. These passports certified the "Aryan descent" in the Third Reich. Each citizen of the German Reich had to provide the "Aryan proof", after full citizenship (Reich citizenship) was given exclusively to citizens with "German or related descent" due to the Nuremberg Laws. The pedigree of the Karrer-Stössel family is meticulously traced. And so there is the entry about the marriage between Meinrad Karrer and Anna Schiess with the note that the young Bonaventur was adopted. From the marriage between him and Juditah Frey sprang out Karl Bonaventur. His daughter Augusta Karolina married Gustav Adolf Stössel. "And their son Gerhard is my father", explains Wolfgang Stössel and adds "that Napoleon III. our ancestor is, is and has been our topic at home ". In the extensive family there is also an old copper ring, which Napoleon Anna Schiess should have given. A mark that Napoleon handed over to his descendants and that was often passed along with other gifts in the families.Wolfgang Stössel's aunt Martha Volz-Stössel (86) still remembers stories of her mother Augusta Karolina. This reported that she often accompanied her grandfather Bonaventur on trips from Allensbach to Arenenberg. There had been a statue that Bonaventur had always commented on with the phrase "Here he stands, the fallen Napoleon." Wolfgang Stössel is by no means uncomfortable with his illegitimate descent. So he advertises in his shop in the Neugasse, which he runs with Sylvia Zwiener, quite offensive with his heritage. "Sometimes people come in to ask me if that's true. Then I show them copies of the ancestral passport, "says Wolfgang Stössel. And is a bit moved that his family history - if only as a footnote - in the great political history of Europe emerges." (Stoessel)

a.k.a. Marianne de Ricci Poniatowska, Comtesse Colonna Walewska.
Daughter ofZanobi Ricci & Isabelle Poniatowska.
Wife of:
1. Comte Alexandre Florian Walewski mar 1846
2. Joseph Alessandro mar 1877
[Ref1:Napoleonic Society] [Ref2:digi-archives]
"...(O)n Thursday, September 28, 1858, he carefully noted down the conversation of the evening before. They had been talking about Walewski, the natural son of the great Napoleon and Maria Walewska. His wife Marianne, was for the moment Napoleon III's mistress. According to Mathilde, Walewski was unaware of his misfortune. 'Marianne is a little libertine who had managed, while sleeping with the Emperor, to become a friend of the Empress. But she is terrified of her husband and I would swear that Walewski knows nothing,'" (Castelot, 1962, p. 269)

25) Maria Kalergis (1822-1874)
Polish noblewoman, pianist & patron of the arts
a.k.a. nee Countess Marie Nesselrode, Marie von Mouchanoff-Kalergis

"Now I come to some women about whom it is possible to give certain slight details.  For example, Mme. Kalerqi, the  very beautiful daughter of M. de Nesselrode, head of the Warsaw Police, and niece of the famous Chancellor, 'a very beautiful woman and an excellent musician,' according to Alfred de Musset, and who first married a banker from the Levant, and secondly General Muravieff..  It was for her that Theophile Gautier wrote the eighteen verses of 'la Symphonie en blanc majeur, which are so warmly lyrical."  (Napoleon III and the Women He Loved: 254)
Princesse de San Donato
"The power behind the throne -- in cultural matters, at least -- was not Eugenie or even a mistress, but Princess Mathilde.  A first cousin of Napoleon II, she was engaged to him briefly at age 16, though they were mismatched intellectually.  When the man she did may turned (sic) out to be cruel and abusive, she fled him with her Parisian lover, the Comte de Nieuwerkerke. She took her family's jewels, using them as collateral for a bank loan of 500,000 francs that funded her cousin's rise to power. Even after Napoleon III's marriage to Eugenie, a Spanish countess educated in Paris, Mathilde wielded enormous power. At the Paris townhouse Napoleon III put at her disposal, she regularly received scientists, writers, painters, and musicians, and she obtained advantages for them.  She herself was an artist, winning a medal for her painting at the 1865 Salon, and it was at her request that the Comte de Nieuwerkerke (a failed sculptor) was promoted to Superintendent of Fine Arts in 1863, at an annual salary of 60,000 francs.  It is said that Princess Mathilde decided who was elected to the Academie des Beaux Arts, or which painter won a medal." (The Hammock Novel)

27) Minna Lindsay.

28) Pascalie Corbiere (1828-?)
Natural offspring:
1. Christian Corbiere
2. Auguste Corbiere

29) Rachel Felix.
Valentine Haussmann
30) Valentine Haussmann (1843-1901)
French royal mistress.
a.k.a. Fanny ValentineMadame Pernetty
Georges Haussmann & his daughter Valentine
19th century
Daughter ofGeorges-Eugene Haussmann, Baron Haussmann, Senator of the Empire & Octavia de Laharpe.
Wife of:
1. Joseph, Vicomte Pernety (1844-1920) mar 1865, sep 1883, div 1887
2. Georges-Jules Renouard (1843-1897) mar 1891
Natural offspring1. Jules-Adrien Hadot (1865-1937)
"More serious was the scandal that attached to Valentine's name, the toll often exacted for joining the social whirl of the imperial court. 'Mlle Haussmann is very pretty for those who like a good, pale complexion,' wrote Merimee, 'but she is common, as is her father.' Much more than her sister or mother, Valentine relished la fete imperiale, participating in the allegories staged at Compiegne and enjoying the company of the young ladies of the court. A scabrous pamphlet of the day told of an elaborate story of how her father had prostituted his daughter to the emperor's lust. The child of this depraved union had been passed off as the child of the emperor's then current mistress, Marguerite Bellanger. There is no corroborative evidence. Haussmann's notoriety had caused the mud slingers to bespatter his daughter. When Valentine's marriage plans were announce a quatrain made the rounds of the Paris salons." (Jordan, 1995, p. 259)
Mademoiselle Lucie Delabigne, 1879
by Edouard Manet
@ Metropolitan Museum of Art
31) Valtesse de La Bigne (1848-1910)
French aristocrat, courtesan, actress & writer
a.k.a. Lucie-Emilie Delabigne
the Painters' Union

"Few of the women who flit across Pretty Women's pages are remembered in history books.  An exception is La Valtesse de la Bigne, born Louise Delabigne, who became the lover of Emperor Napoleon III and influenced his diplomatic decisions.  Her regal beauty and wit put her on a par with the hetaerae, courtesans of ancient Greece---the author opines---despite the fact that by 1883 she was 'suspiciously near forty.'  Blessed with sky-blue eyes and cascading auburn hair, Louise had made her start as an artist's model whose bevy of famous lovers, including Manet and Courbet, earned her the nickname "Painter's Union.  She eventually married an indulgent Turkish banker and established herself in a palace filled with priceless artifacts, including a giant bed of gilded bronze. . . ." (The Sinner's Grand Tour: 64)

32) Varvara Rimsky-Korsakova.
"It is time to introduce here a woman now largely forgotten, but one who was much talked about during the Second Empire: Varvara Rimsky-Korsakov, called by Theophile Gautier 'the Venus of Tartary.'  A rival to Castiglione in both her beauty and her extravagance, she arrived in Paris from St. Petersburg at the same time as the Countess. . .  They were frequently mistaken for one another: the two foreigners had both been received at the Tuileries, each had had a brioef liaison with the Emperor, and both lived in Passy. . . ."  (La Divine Comtesse: Photographs of the Countess de Castiglione: 61)
Virginia Oldoini
Contessa di Castiglione
a.k.a. A Female Narcissus (by Fleury), Aspasia (by Comte de Vieil-Castel)
Lover in 1856-1857.
La Castiglione's physical appearance & personal qualities:  " . . . Mme. Carette says of her: 'Madame de Castiglione was an accomplished lady, and possessed of a beauty which did not seem to belong to our time.  But notwithstanding the admirable perfection and even the gracefulness of her person, scarcely credible though this may seem, she lacked charm.  Her beautiful face recalled to mind those divinities whom the ancients sought to appease by sacrifices.  You can form some idea of this extraordinary person by imagining a most beautiful statue come to life.' The portrait drawn by the pen of the count de Vieil-Castel is more lively: 'Yesterday I dined at Princess Mathilde's with the Countess de Castiglione.  It is impossible to behold a more seductive creature, more perfectly beautiful: beautiful eyes, fine nose, little mouth, admirable hair, ravishing shoulders and arms, and hands of an irreproachable line. The Countess's conversation is animated and light."  (The True Story of the Empress Eugenie: 82-83)

La Castiglione's personal & family background:  "The Countess de Castiglione was a daughter of the Marquis Oldoini of Florence, and through Countess Walewska, also a Florentine lady. obtained an invitation to a ball at the Tuileries.  She was separated from her husband---Count Francesco Verasis di Castiglione---who married against his will the former mistress of King Victor Emmanuel.  Her Christian name was Virginia."  (The True Story of the Empress Eugenie: 83)

The mistress is a spy:  "The Countess de Castiglione, widely considered the most beautiful woman of her day, may be unfamiliar to American audiences, but her life reads like a Hollywood drama.  Born in Italy in 1837, she was sent to Paris at the age of eighteen as a special agent for the cause of Italian unification, with the admonition from Cavour: 'Succeed by whatever means you wish -- but succeed!' Within weeks of her arrival in the French capital, she was the mistress of Emperor Napoleon III. . .  While there is abundant evidence on the question of Castiglione's relationship to Napoleon III, the Countess never admitted, either in her letters or in conversation, to having been his mistress. The only veiled allusion to this major event in her life is a clause in her will in which she asked to be buried in 'the Compiegne chemise of 1857, cambric and lace.'  The liaison can be dated fairly precisely to between the Le Hon ball, held at the carnival of 1856 and spring 1857 (the date of the attempt on the Emperor's life in the avenue Montaiagne).  The Countess was at the height of her social success when she appeared at a costume ball given by the Walewskis at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, on 17 February 1857, dressed as the Queen of Hearts. . . ."  (La Divine Comtesse: Photographs of the Countess de Castiglione: 6, 60)

The mysterious recluse:  " . . . In the years that followed, she fashioned herself into a mysterious recluse notorious for her many love affairs, and ended her days at the cusp of the new century, faded, unstable, and alone. . . ."  (La Divine Comtesse: Photographs of the Countess de Castiglione: 6)

References for Napoleon III. 
Court Life of the Second French Empire 1852-1870
Descendants of Napoleon III @stoessel.wordpress
Kaiser Napoleon III War Frichtle @medien-berichte
Napoleon III @TheRoyalForums
Napoleon III & the Women He Loved
Napoleon III and His Court

Louis BonaparteKing of Holland (1778-1846)
King of Holland, Prince of France 1810, Comte de Saint-Leu, Constable of France 1808.
a.k.a. Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, Luigi Buonaparte, Lodewijk Napoleon, Konijn van 'Olland (Rabbit of 'Olland)
Son ofCarlo Buonaparte & Letizia Ramolino.
Husband ofHortense de Beauharnais, mar 1802.

"Who was this Georges Ville?  When Napoleon Bonaparte apportioned the conquered countries of Europe to his brothers, Louis Bonaparte received in 1806 the newly established throne of Holland.  Louis Bonaparte was married, though rather indifferently, to Hortense Beauharnais, the daughter of Josephine, Napoleon's first Empress, and her previous husband, the Vicomte de Beauharnais.  Louis was not interested in kingship; he had little sympathy with his brother's efforts to form a European bloc and made the cession of Brabant to France an excuse to abdicate in 1810.  Louis found greater happiness with the housemaids of Hortense and to one of these was born Georges Ville at Port Saint-Esprit (Gard), taking his name from Georges Ville, a police commissioner at Lyon who was asked to marry the housemaid.  Hortense, just as unfaithful, had a lover, the comte de Flahaut, as a result of which Charles, the future duc de Morny, was born in 1811.  Ville and Morny were, therefore, the half-brothers of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, a legitimate son of Louis and Hortense, who was to become Napoleon III in 1852 following a coup d'etat in 1851 which was organised by Morny.  Little is known of Ville's early life except that he was one of Boussingault's students at the Conservatoire, probably in 1846, and that he left for a post at the Ecole de Pharmacie before returning to the Convservatoire in 1848 as demonstrator to Boussingault."  (Boussingault: Chemnist adn Agriculturist: 110)
Hortense de Beauharnais
Queen of Holland
Hortense de BeauharnaisQueen of Holland (1783-1837)
a.k.a. Duchesse de St. Leu.
Physical Traits & Personal Qualities:  "Bonaparte became consul in December, 1799, Hortense attaining about the same period her eighteenth year. She was at this time a very pretty and pleasing young lady.  Her light silken hair played round a face of pure pink and white, though her color was slight, and her complexion therefore rather pale than florid. Her eyes were a soft and penetrable blue.  Her figure was slender, and her carriage graceful. Her manner was engaging, combining the stimulating vivacity of a Frenchwoman with the languid suavity of a Creole. . . . "  (Goodrich & Champagne, 1858, p. 283)  

Persona or Character:  ", , , She was witty, but not caustic.  She cultivated flowers, and successfully transferred their color and forms to paper. She composed and sang ballads, and was an excellent amateur actress."  (Goodrich & Champagne, 1858, p. 283)

"Hortense de Beauharnais, wife of Louis Bonaparte, had four sons, each by a different man but with the name Bonaparte (only the eldest by her husband), while the fourth was by her lover the Comte de Flahaut, himself the illegitimate son of Talleyrand. The son became the Duc de Morny and like his putative grandfather, foreign minister to a Napoleon. (Sainty, 2000, December 30)

"She was born in Paris, the daughter of Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais.  As a child she was a great favorite of her step-father, Napoleon I, and in 1802 married his brother Louis, King of Holland (1806-1810); the youngest of their three children became Napoleon III.  In 1810-1811 she was the mistress of Comte Auguste de Flahaut, their son becoming Duc de Morny.  She was created Duchesse de St. Leu by Louis XVIII (1814) at Czar Alexander III's request.  She was a gifted artist and composer...."  (Houghton Mifflin Co., p. 129)
Hortense, Queen of Holland

Her lover was:
Lover in 1810-1811
"In 1811 Hortense de Beauharnais, daughter of Empress Josephine, found herself pregnant by her lover, a handsome soldier named Charles de Flahaut.  Hortense had not lived with her husband, Louis Bonaparte, Napoleon's brother, for years.  Though Napoleon had made them king and queen of the Netherlands in 1806, Hortense reaped little benefit from her exalted status.  King Louis forced his wife to remain in her rooms---which smelled of sewage and overlooked a graveyard---while he enjoyed palace entertainments."  (Herman, 2007, p. 44)

References for Hortense de Beauharnais.
The Memoirs of Queen Hortense, Volume 2

Bonaparte Princes & Princesses.

Caroline Bonaparte (1782-1839)
Princess of the French Empire 1804, Grand Duchess of Berg & Cleves 1806, Queen of Naples & the Two Sicilies 1808, Duchess of Lipona.
File:General Jean Andoche Junot.jpg
Jean-Andoche Junot, Duc d'Abrantes
by Henri Phillippoteaux, 19th cent.
@ Palais du Versailles
Her lovers were:
1) Jean-Andoche Junot, 1st Duc d'Abrantes (1771-1813).
a.k.a. General Andoche Junot.
"Caroline Bonaparte never visited Berg, but remained in Paris where she was reputedly the lover first of General Junot and then of the dashing young Austrian ambassador, Count Clemenz von Metternich...." (Davis, 2006, p. 141)

2) Charles Cavel
"...[h]er final lover was a young man called Charles Cavel, obviously on the make.  Having failed to secure the contents of her will, he afterwards sold the family her letters for an alleged 60,000 francs."  (Horricks, 1995, p. 43)

3) Francesco MacDonald
"Achille's mother, Caroline, still brooded in splendid exile.  Her flirtation with Prince Metternich having gotten her nowhere, she now played out her days at a palace in Florence as a faux countess with new lover Francesco MacDonald, her deceased husband's foreign minister in the heyday of the kingdom of Naples...." (Tate, 2011, p. 151)

"Her closing years years were sad indeed. Thought politically too dangerous to be allowed near other Bonapartes, once her children had grown up and left she had as her sole companion General Francesco Macdonald (who perhaps she married secretly). . . ." (Napoleon's Elites: 43)

4) Prince Klemenz von Metternich.
Queen Caroline's spouse & children:  She married, in 1800, Joachim Murat. "The question of a suitable marriage now came up.  Jean Lannes had wanted to marry her; likewise Augereau; and even General Moreau had been mentioned as a possible husband. But Caroline had met and fallen for the handsome Joachim Murat on a visit to Rome, and as usual over these years she simply went to her brother and got her own way.  She and Murat signed the marriage contract in the Palais du Luxembourg on January 18, 1800. The bride received a dowry of 40,000 francs and 12,000 francs worth of jewels and furs. As time went on she bore the marshal four children, but more significantly now devoted herself to obtaining ever-increasing wealth and status.  She fully believed the end 'justifies' the means.  If she couldn't get what she desired by pushing Murat's career or scheming with Talleyrand and Fouche, then she used flood of tears and bitter reproaches on Napoleon himself.  She even slept with Junot when he was the Governor of Paris and therefore had precedence over her husband in the capital.  (It got Junot the sack!)  (Horricks, 1995, pp. 41-42)

Queen Caroline's physical appearance& personal qualities:  "...Caroline was quite clever and would later prove her governmental abilities in Naples.  She was the only fair-haired member of the family, small and slender, not as beautiful as Pauline, but with a delightful pink and white complexion and brilliant, large eyes."  (Horricks, 1995, p. 41)
Charles, 1st Duc de Morny
Charles de Morny1st Duc de Morny (1811-1865)
French statesman. 
a.k.a. Auguste de Morny, Charles de Morny, Morny, Charles-Auguste-Louis-Joseph, Duc de Morny, Auguste Demorny, Charles-Auguste de Flahaut.

Morny: a man of fashion, of pleasure, of mark: "Among the men of mark who, in the course of the Presidency, rallied to Prince Louis Napoleon---but only after having assured himself that Bonapartism, and not Orleanism, was in the ascendant---was the Count de Morny.  First, and foremost, a man of fashion and of pleasure who had flourished under the Monarchy of July, and had been a favourite in society and in the political world; who had talked politics with the King, amused himself with the princes, found favour with great ladies, and been commended for his parts by the austere Guizot, who more than once thought of offering him a Ministerial portfolio; who had, as a young man, shown extraordinary aptitude for great commercial enterprises; a wit and a man of courage, a courtier and a man of business, a dandy and a sportsman---the Count de Morny was no sentimentalist.  He had not an atom of romance in his composition. . . ." (The Life of Napoleon III: Derived from State Records, Volume 3: 208)

Personal attitudes, qualities and attributes:  " . . . Amiability was part of his good manners, easily cultivated, because of his nature was not a bad one, and it asserted itself often, mitigating the sometimes icy effect of his habitual cynicism.  'In spire of his indifference,' M. Emile Ollivier remarks of him, 'he was capable of friendship.  Like all men who have had many love affairs, he had no tenderness: it its stead he had grace, an easy wit, tact, cordiality, a seductive charm.  There was no pose in his manner, no surliness, but a captivating spontaneity.  He was always affable, and although very busy never appeared without feeling attracted at first, and then moved by apathy.' The Count had sterner and deeper qualities.  'Penetration was his dominant power, and he knew it. 'When you talk with a man,' he said one day, 'listen to what he thinks, and not to what he says.'  While in most men penetration by unmasking the many sides of things, leads to indecision in M. de Morny it only made his resolution more absolute.  He had the most exquisite common sense. He knew little beyond what experience had taught him, but he divined much, and when an authority argued with him he went straight to the core of the question. He did not avoid a place because it presented dangers. . .  'Where is there not danger?' he used to say. He met peril with audacity, and he was right, because he could measure and direct it.  He did not confound the timidity by which everything is lost with the prudence without which nothing succeeds.  He did not mistake obstinacy for firmness; he would listen to the advice of men, and use the teaching of events.  Without speculative moods, his resolution was swiftly followed by action.  He acted by intuition, not by principle.  An object once settled, he was not nice as to the means, and looked upon everything that was useful as legitimate.  He was not hard, nor cruel, not vindictive, and he was not proud of violent courses, like low minds.  His life was deficient in austerity.  You felt the want of moral atmosphere about him.  He pretended to be only the model of an accomplished man of honour.  He was insensible to the abstract right in a case, but he yielded willingly to an appeal to his generosity.'"  The Life of Napoleon III: Derived from State Records, Volume 3: 208)

A hand of iron in a velvet glove:  "Much better looking and better built, more courtly, more of a grand seigneur in appearance than his half-brother Napoleon III, Morny was also the abler man of the two.  Had he been honest he might have been a great one.  shrewd and strong-minded, as D'Alton-Shee indicated, 'a hand of iron in a velvet glove,' he was also possessed of no little culture---real artistic perception, genuine literary ability, and great expertness of speech. But the Empire was scarcely re-established when he abruptly withdrew from office.  This man, who figured in many shady financial transactions, and who had not hesitated to rob his friend, the Duke of Orleans, of various mistresses, under circumstances by no means over clean, was either genuinely disgusted by the seizure of the Orleans private property---confiscated by a decree dated January 22, 1852---or, at least, he regarded the spoliation as a stupendous political blunder  The latter view is, of course, more in keeping with his character.  In any case (like a few others, notably M. Rouher), he resigned, and had no share in the lavish distribution of favours which attended the re-establishment of the Empire.  For some time, availing himself of the influence he retained in spire of his apparent secession, he devoted himself to speculation, and it was only in 1854 that he again came to the front politically,, this time as President of the Legislative Body." (Court Life of the Second French Empire, 1852-1870: 28-29)

Morny's personal & family background:  Charles was the natural son of Hortense de Beauharnais and Charles-Joseph, Comte de Flahaut.  " . . . Morny's birth certificate registers his father as Auguste Demorny, a planter in the French Caribbean colony of Saint-Domingue but, in fact, he was the illegitimate son of Hortense Bonaparte and Charles, comte de Flahaut.  Morny boasted illustrious connections: he was half-brother to Louis-Napoleon on his maternal side, and his father was himself the issue of Talleyrand's affair with the countess Adelaide de Flahaut. . . ."  (Biographies in

"Finally, Lady Blessington counted among her guests Charles de Morney (sic), 'the George Anson of Paris, l'enfant gaite a la fortune, for whom the Duchess de Raguse and the Duchesse de Dino are dying, with whom Mlle. Mars is so desperately in love that she won't act--no. She has been in bead for a month, because he has quarrelled with her.  And for why?  He spied a chain given to him by Raguse, by him to Mars, on the waistcoat of another and resented it.' Although this latter lady was generally careful to conceal her adventures, it dow not seem that she tried very hard to keep this latter liaison secret.  But Mlle. Mars was no longer in her first youth, and jokes were sometimes bandied about her expense.  On hearing one day that Mornay had a portrait of the lady at twenty handing up his room: 'Yes,' Pozzi di Borgo remarked spitefully, 'he is glad to see her as she was when the other men knew her.'  However this may be, there is no doubt that Mlle. Mars at that time still retained a strange attractiveness, and that to the charms of her beautiful eyes she added other qualities no less rare. . . ." (Eminent English Men and Women in Paris: 246-247)

Husband ofSofia Trubetskaya (1836-1896), Russian aristocrat, Daughter of
Ekaterina Petrovna Mussina-Pushkina and either Prince Sergey Vasilevich Trubetskoy or Nikolai I of Russia
a.k.a. Sofia Sergeyevna Trubetskaya, Sophie Trobetskoy, Sophie Troubetzlkoi.
mar 1857
Morny's spouse:  He married, in 1857, Sofia Sergeyevna, Princess Trubetskaya, daughter of Sergei Vasilyevich, Prince Trubetskoy and his wife Ekaterina Pavlovna Mussina-Pushkina.  "Morny's second achievement in Russia was the discovery of a wife.  He fell in love with the blond and young---she was not half his age---Sophie Troubetzkoi.  Sophie had been brought up at court, as her father, Serge Troubetzkoi, had been striped of princely title and banished to Siberia by the Czar for abducting a beautiful woman from her husband's arm. Alexander II consented to Sophie's marriage, which took place on January 7, 1857."  (Gaslight and Shadows: 52)
Charles, 1st Duc de Morny
His lovers were
Belgian noblewoman.
a.k.a. Fanny Le Hon.
Daughter ofFrancois-Dominique Mosselman, Belgian banker
Wife ofComte Charles Le Hon, Belgian diplomat.

"Countess Le Hon, nee Mosselman, was the daughter of a ranking Belgian banker and his wife of His Belgian Majesty's first Ambassador to France.  She kept up a discreet correspondence with Hortense until the latter's death, became a lioness in French society, and made important cash advances to her lover.  Presumably it was her money which enabled Morny to play the stock market and to invest in a newspaper.  The latter venture was not exactly a success. . .  Countess Le Hon then encouraged Morny to participate directly in the sugar business.  She owned land around Clermont-Ferrand, and in 1837 Morny purchased a sugar refinery in the neighboring town of Bourdon.  His success was immediate; not only did he prosper, but he won the favor of his fellow entrepreneurs---men to whom he was inclined to refer as the 'considerable people.'  They responded by electing him president of the beet-sugar manufacturers' association. . . ."  (Gaslight and Shadow: Thje World of Napoleon III, 1851-1870: 44)

" . . . Charles de Morny alias Bonaparte had been introduced to Fanny Le Hon by his best friend, an inveterate reveller by the name of Fernand de Montguyon, his senior by three years. . . ."  (The Real Traviata: The Song of Marie Duplessis: 78)

" . . . In May 1838, he left the army to pursue a business career with the capital of his mistress Fanny le Hon.  Fanny was the daughter of the banker Francois-Dominique Mosselman and wife of the comte Charles le Hon, a Belgian diplomat. The liaison would prove vital for Morny's career." (Biographies in

2) Julie Bernardt
a.k.a. Youle Bernard 
Mother of Sarah Bernhardt.
"She was born illegitimate to Julie Bernardt, the daughter of a Jewish spectacle merchant and an unknown father.  Her mother who went by the name of Yule was a courtesan who counted the Duc de Morny, half-brother to Napoleon III, amongst her lover."   (Scandalous Women)

3) Julie Judith van Hardt.

4) Leocadia Zelewska (1838-1924)
Daughter ofBoguslaw Zalewski.
Wife of
1. Ernest-Aime Feydeau, French banker
2. Henri Fouquier

5) Marie Duplessis (1824-1847)
French courtesan and mistress.
a.k.a. Alphonsine Rose Plessis, the Lady of the Camellias.
Wife ofCount Edouard de Perregaux, mar 1846.

"Soon afterwards she caught the attention of th eDuc de Morny, the illegitimate son of Hortense Bonaparte, who set about transforming her into a worthy ducal consort When their relationship began, Alphonsine was barely literate. By the time in ended 18 months later, she had acquired a formidable appetite for elegant clothes and jewels, thoroughbred horses and literture -- her favorite novel was Manon Lescaut, Abbe Prevost's account of a young woman who sacrifises true live fir riches. In 1847, aged 17, she bore Morny a son who died a month later. Their affair did not long survive the chilfd's death. In 1841, age 17, who died a month later. Their affair did not long survive the shild's death. Rebranded a 'Marie Duplesis', she began 

Charlotte-Napoleone Bonaparte (1802-1839)
French artist
a.k.a. Comtesse de Sutvilliersstanisl.

Her lovers were:
Leopold Robert, 1837
1) Louis-Leopold Robert (1794-1835)
Swiss painter
"...In Rome she had had a brief affair with a Swiss artist, Louis-Leopold Robert, whose studio in the Via Sistina she and her husband had often visited in the past for instruction in drawing, painting, and lithography.  During the course of painting Charlotte many times, Leopold fell in love with her... She did not return Leopold's love, which perhaps accounts for her expression.  Tragically, it may have been from this unrequited passion that in 1835 Leopold committed suicide...."  (Stroud, 2000, p. 151)

2)  Stanislaw Potocki.
"After the death of her husband, Bonaparte lived with her mother in Florence. Among the visitors they received there was a Polish count whose lover Bonaparte is said to have become.  In late 1838, finding herself pregnant, she went to Rome and then headed for Genoa.  On the way she began to hemorrhage, and at Sarzana she underwent a cesarean section.  The baby, however, was already dead and soon after, on March 2, 1839, Bonaparte herself died from loss of blood. . . ."  (Past and Promise: Lives of New Jersey Women: 57)

"...Later a group of exiled Polish aristocrats replaced the artists at Charlotte's salon, and she fell deeply in love with one of them.  Count Potocki was married, but his wife was far away in Poland.  He was apparently the father of Charlotte's unborn child."  (Stroud, 2000, p. 151)

Physical appearance & personal qualities:  " . . . Bonaparte was petite, with large dark eyes, an intelligent face, and great vivacity.  She was said to be capricious and sometimes brutally frank, but her father was rich, and many suitors called at Point Breeze. . . ."  (Past and Promise: Lives of New Jersey Women: 56)

Personal & family background:  "Charlotte Bonaparte was the second surviving child of Joseph and Julie (Clary) Bonaparte.  Her father, the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, was born in Corsica; her mother was the daughter of a wealthy merchant of Marseilles, France.  Bonaparte grew up at her father's country estate in Mortefontaine and in Paris." (Past and Promise: Lives of New Jersey Women: 56) [Bio1:Napoleon Sites]

2nd Prince of Canino and Musignano.

His lover was:
Maria Testaferrata (1820-?)
Lover in 1838.
"Donna Marie Said-Testaferrata born in Santi, North of Rabat, Malta in the year of 1820 to Principe Salvatore Said and Marie Dimech-Testaferrata. She met Prince Charles Lucien Bonaparte, Principe di Canino e Musignan in 1838. Prince Charles took an instant liking to her and had placed her in his custody at his apartment where she was to be his mistress and lady of the night for his pleasures. Marie slowly sank into life in her new home and the trappings of the Italian aristocratic friends, feelings for home slowly faded and her love of Charles grew fonder. Marie was being paid to live a peaceful and colorful life with Charles. But Charles’s wife had been aware of Marie’s existence and too had taken a liking and invited her to her home from time to time. This more or less kept Charles loyal to his wife and his mistress, no different women at his bedside, one could say a complete life with one’s desires at ease. The Italian Aristocracy had always kept mistresses and it was a way of life in the 19th century. Her travels were mainly in and out of Rome to a country place, palace or mansion for the day of tea and activities, though Marie was earning the respect of her new friends as a typical role model. Marie bore four children in the five years of living in Rome, and the year 1845, Charles Lucien wanted no more, her job was done. Though her children had become part of Charles-Lucien family and even registered as born by his wife, not as Marie’s children. Her first son was Napoleon Charles Bonaparte, born 5th February 1839 , succeeded as the 5th Principe di Canino e Musignano and Principe by the Pope. He later Died 189 in Rome, and married Maria Cristina de Principi Ruspoli, and had three children." (Monarchy Forum)

Elisa Bonaparte (1777-1820)
Princess of Lucca & Piombino, Grand Duchess of Tuscany.
a.k.a. la Semiramide di Lucca
Wife ofFelice Pasquale Bacciochimar 1797

Her lovers were:
1) Barone Capelle.
2) Fontanes.

Jerome Bonaparte
King of Westphalia
@Musee national du Chateau de Fontainebleau
Rear-Admiral 1806, French Prince 1806 & 1852, General of Division 1807 &1848, King of Westphalia 1807-1813, Prince of Montfort in Wurttemberg 1816, Governor of Les Invalides 1848 & 1852, Prince of France, Marshal of France 1850, Senator 1852, President of Senate 1852
a.k.a. Fifi, König Lustigthe Old Rake.

The least well-looking of all his family.
". . . Jerome Bonaparte was described by the Duchesse d'Abrantes---who, however, was no friend of his, and was little inclined to do him even justice---as 'the least well-looking of all his family.' She allows him a good figure. According to less prejudiced critics, he was in his youth small, spare, and graceful, dark-haired and dark-eyed. His dandyism, of a long-last era, renders his early portraits rather than attractive to modern eyes. In the later representations of him he is not altogether unpleasing, but he in no way suggests either his daughter, or his son. . . ." (The Princess Mathilde Bonaparte: 19)

Madame Junot's impressions of Jerome.
" . . . Madame Junot, so merciless in describing Catherine's physical defects, is certainly no more kind to Jerome at this period. The least well-looking of Napoleon's brothers, she calls him. His head was close to his shoulders---the fault of all the younger Bonapartes except Pauline. He was pleasing neither in face nor in figure. . . ." (The Burlesque Napoleon: 155-156)

Jerome's Kingdom of Westphalia.
"All the territory of the Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, who was killed at Jena, was included in the new kingdom; nearly all Hesse-Cassel; the bulk of Prussia's lost possessions on the left bank of the Elbe; Prussia's fief of Stolberg, and Hesse-Cassel's fief of Rietberg; Göttingen, Grubenhagen, and Osnabruck, belonging to George III, as Elector of Hanover, and the Abbey of Corvey, belonging to the Prince of Orange. (Mémoires et correspondence du Roi Jerome, iii, p. 40)." (The Burlesque Napoleon: 189)

Husband of:
1. Elizabeth Patterson (1785-1879)
a.k.a. Betsy Bonaparte, the Belle of Baltimore.
mar 1803, ann 1805, div 1815.

Betsy Patterson's physical characteristics and personal qualities: " . . . She is described as having possessed ;the pure Grecian contour.' 'Her head was exquisitely formed, her forehead fair and shapely, her eyes large and dark, with an expression of tenderness which did not belong to her character; and the delicate loveliness of her mouth and chin, together with her beautifully-rounded shoulders and tapering arms, combined to form one of the loveliest of women. . . When she married Jerome her prominent characteristics were ambition, love of pleasure, and self-will. Under the influence of the cruel fate which the Bonaparte family brought upon her, she developed an admirable courage and a less admirable but surely pardonable hardness. Her native wit, encouraged perhaps by her early reading, was trained by undeserved humiliation into a bitterness which cause it to the said of her afterwards that she charmed with her eyes while she slew with her tongue. She has suffered in reputation from the vindictive remarks in her father's will. . . ." (The Burlesque Napoleon: Being the Story of the Life and the Kingship of Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte, Youngest Brother of Napoleon the Great: 62-63)

Catherine's character: "Sophia-Dorothea-Frederika-Catherine of Wurttemberg, the princess chosen to be the bride of the newest king in Europe, has furnished to her contemporaries and to subsequent writers alike a puzzle for which they have found it difficult to suggest a satisfactory explanation. Merely as the faithful and loving wife of the most notorious royal rake of his day, she might be dismissed as stupid. Against such a verdict there is a powerful protest of observers during life, including not the least acute men and women of the period. Napoleon himself, to the very last, had nothing but good to say of her. The tribute is well known which he paid to her at Saint Helena, when he said that she had 'with her own hand inscribed her name on the page of history.' In her fragments of diary, and in the mass of her correspondence which has been published, we are bound to recognise Catherine's great simplicity of character; but certainly there are more evidences of amiability than of strength. Her main fault, undoubtedly, was a lack of sense of the responsibility of her position. She was pleasure-loving, too, but in no dishonourable way. How then, it has been asked, could she reconcile herself to Jerome's ideas of pleasure, the chief of which was rooted in his dishonour as a husband? Still more, how could she be satisfied with him in the midst of his Court, as she always, in the accents of sincerity, protested herself to be? If she was not stupid, she could not be blind when all around her knew so much; and if not blind, how could she find contentment with a Jerome? The secret of the latter's fascination for his 'Trinette' must, apparently, remain unknown. As a rule, his power of attraction was merely superficial, or exerted itself only on worthless persons. But Catherine preferred ruin, and virtual imprisonment, with him to any easier lot without him, and declared that he made here perfectly happy." (The Burlesque Napoleon: 143-144)

Madame Junot's impressions of Katharina: " . . . Napoleon superintended all arrangements, and according to these Catherine was not to arrive in Paris till seven on the evening of the 21st of August. The early part of that day she was to spend at the chateau of Raincy, where Madame Junot was deputed to receive her, and whither a suite, chosen for her from Josephine's household, was sent to wait on her. A full record of the events of the day was preserved by Madame Junot, on whose impressions we must rely. Catherine was not altogether pleasing on first view, says this writer. She was a fine woman, however, and there was a noble pride about her head, which would have been more striking still if her neck had not been short, as was her general figure. To make the most of her inches she carried herself very upright, throwing her head back on her shoulders. She could not be called exactly pretty, though her features were all good. Her eyes looked as though they might soften; but they never did, and this gave her a very haughty if not disagreeable expression. She seldom smiled; seriousness and calm marked her face rather than liveliness or grace. With fair hair, blue eyes, very white teeth she had a very fresh complexion, while her unfortunately inherited stoutness caused her to colour violently when agitated as she was when she reached Raincy. . . ." (The Burlesque Napoleon: 152-153)

First encounter: " . . . It is agreed that it was in September that the two first set eyes on each other; and the earliest meeting is usually placed in the house of Samuel Chase, where Jerome was a visitor through the introduction of his friend Barney. But one writer, stating that Jerome and Elizabeth were first face to face at the Baltimore races, gives a strong verisimilitude to the story by describing the lady's costume on the occasion. Elizabeth wore a a buff silk dress, a lace fichu, and a leghorn hat with pink tulle trimmings and black plumes. Wherever it was that they were first introduced, Elizabeth's reception of the French lieutenant was cold, for she had heard of his presumptuous reference to his belle femme. This state of affairs did not last long, Jerome being piqued by the show of resistance, and determined to overcome it. The society which surrounded the two fostered the growth of their acquaintance, and soon their mutual attraction was evident to all.' (The Burlesque Napoleon: 65-66)
Jerome Bonaparte & Katharine von Wurttemberg
by Sebastian Weygandt, 1810
@Private collection
She wanted to leave her native Baltimore; he came to look for beautiful women.
"Betsy Patterson was the Belle of Baltimore, yet all she wanted to was was leave the city in her dust. And at 18, Patterson saw her chance in Jerome Bonaparte. the 19-year-old brother of Napoleon, emperor of France. Booted from the French Ney, Jerome had come to Baltimore, lured by a sailor's promise that it was where to find America's most beautiful women." (Baltimore Sun)

2. Katharina von Wurttemberg (1783-1835)
Queen of Westphalia
German memoirist
(married 1807)

Daughter ofFriedrich I von Wurttemberg & Augusta von Braunschweig.
Girolamo con la famiglia Il re di Westphalia, Girolamo e la consorte Caterina di Württemberg Unfollow board   Send Board B M B M Il re di Westphalia, Girolamo e la con:
Jerome , Katharina & family
" . . . Catherine of Wurttemberg inherited from her father, mockingly called 'the greatest king in Europe,' an excessive stoutness. She was small in stature, but carried herself very upright, and her head was well poised on a short neck. Her hair was fair, her eyes blue, and her complexion very fresh. The stoutness, somewhat modified, the good carriage and the fair hair all descended to the Princess Mathilde. So too did the fresh colour, which in daughter as in mother, at times of excitement turned to a deep crimson which was not altogether becoming." (The Princess Mathilde Bonaparte: 19-20)

3) Maria Giustina Pecori-Saurez (1811-1903)
Marchesa Baldelli
mar 1853.
"Jerome took as his third wife the Marchesa Bartolini-Badelli, a widow of about forty, though still possessed of good looks in addition to a fortune. He suceeded in presenting himself to her in so desirable a light that she accepted what was virtually only a morganatic marriage, never allowing her to take his title even after his return to France. Apart from this he treated her with base ingratitude and finally drove her away from him." (The Princess Mathilde Bonaparte: 29)

Far from blameless domestic life.
"It will have been gathered that the domestic life of Jerome Bonaparte, from the time when he married the Princess Catherine, had been far from blameless. even in the honeymoon period, at Fontainebleau, he was alleged to have shown very marked attention to the Grand Duchess of Baden. But as Stephanie Beauharnais and he had been friends in childhood, the malicious comments were quite possibly unfair. In the first month of his reign at Cassel, however, we have seen Jollivet writing of 'certain gallant adventures' which had damned the King in public esteem, of a Court dame on whose dismissal the Queen had insisted, and of the Breslau actress whom Le Camus had brought to Cassel at this master's desire. The latter lady, it appears had been considered by Jerome a suitable wife for his head valet Albertoni; but the ingenious plan had not been very successful, for Albertoni, though he received a dowry with his bride, found her too good-looking for life in Cassel, retired from the King's service, and took her to Paris. Other actresses were connected to Court scandal with the King, and the lesser stars of the dramatic profession certainly seemed to have a strong attraction for him. One, it was said, was secretly deported from Westphalia in a closed carriage, by no less orders that Napoleon's, much to Jerome's disgust. Usually, with the aid of obliging courtiers, he found little difficulty in lodging a temporary favourite discreetly in his capital; often, indeed, at his Court; for Catherine was marvellously unsuspicious about the appointment of her maids-of-honour. Jerome suffered little interference in his faithless career." (Burlesque Napoleon: 215-216)

Affairs in Silesia.
" . . . Napoleon had a strong suspicion that Jerome was not finding life too hard at Breslau. Indeed, he wrote to him, nine days after this last bulletin, mentioning that 'a certain lady of Stuttgart' was complaining that Jerome was too gallant towards the ladies of Breslau. Was it true? he asked. It is not probable that the Princess Catherine had actually made any complaint, but it is more probable that stories were current in Germany about Jerome's life at Breslau. In particular, he was known to have attached himself to an opera-singer, whom Le Camus, on his behalf, induced to come to Cassel later. Other entanglements were spoken of also. Now, thought the Emperor might himself have one love affair in Poland, it was by no means suitable that Jerome, soon to marry a princess, should have a number of affairs in Silesia. It was necessary that he should recall to him the thought of the marriage in store for him." (The Burlesque Napoleon135-136)
Jerome Bonaparte
by Sophie Lienard
His lovers were:
1) Anna, Marchesa Azzolino.

2) Atcha Minoar.
Indian princess.
Natural offspring1. Giulio (1820-1856)

3) Blanche Carrega, Baroness Keudelstein.
a.k.a. Blanche Carrega, Baroness von Keudelsheim, the Beautiful Madame L(by Maubreuil).

Bianca's four admirers.
"Leaving aside all question of her husband, Bianca had four admirers. First there was King Jerome, and secondly the Prince Royal of Wurttemberg, brother to Queen Catherine, Jerome's wife. At the period which we have now reached in this narrative (1809-1810), the Prince, who subsequently proved his military ability in the command of some portion of the Allied forces during the Campaign of France, was for ever seeking one or another pretext to escape from Stuttgart and visit Cassel, to lay homage at the feet of the beautiful Bianca, for he declined to live with his Bavarian wife. Still, this was to the advantage of France, his infatuation for Bianca helping bind Wurttemberg to the French alliance.  The admiration of a King and a Crown Prince was not sufficient, however, for Bianca. She counted a third admirer in Maubreuil, and a fourth in a certain Lasserre, a young and handsome Creole, who, on the occasion of one of Jerome's voyages, had followed him to Europe, and was employed in some petty clerkly post in the palace of Cassel. According to la chronique scandaleuse, Bianca, though favoured with the attention of a King, a Prince, and a Marquis, found the young Creole clerk more to her liking; and when one remembers the natural eccentricity not to say perversity of woman, and all the many similar examples which might be adduced, it is not difficult to believe in the accuracy of this report." (The Wild Marquis: 41-42)

Bianca's physical appearance & personal qualities.
"It appears that the lady was very coquettish, very flighty, very beautiful. A Genoese by nationality, she had the 'black rolling eye' so much admired by Byron, who, if he had gone to Westphalia at this period, might never have reached Venice.  It other respects the Baroness von Keudelsheim was no worse than some of those ladies of the Court of our Second Charles, whom Hamilton described so vivaciously, and from whom so many prominent English peers and even statesmen have traced their descent." (The Wild Marquis: 41)

". . . It is true that we very soon begin to hear of a young Genoese woman, Bianca or Blanche Carrega, whom he met during his mission to her native place, and who attached herself to his fortunes in such a way as to leave no doubt of their relations.  But this did not take place at once, and we need not consider his early letters to Elizabeth as pretending to sentiments which he had ceased to feel. . . . "  (Sargent, 1905, pp. 106-107)

"As has been stated already, Jerome made the acquaintance of Blanche Carrega when he was at Genoa, mourning for the loss of his first wife.  He had assisted her to marry a Frenchman named La Fleche, whom he took very much into his favour as the reward of a base complacency.  On his elevation to kingship he appointed La Fleche Master of the Ceremonies to himself and Blanche maid-of-honour to the Queen.  After this charming arrangement he proceeded to create La Fleche Baron Keudelstein, and shortly afterwards Councillor of State and Superintendent of the Civil List, a post which gave him plentiful opportunities of increasing his own income.

"To depict the Court of Westphalia aright, one would need the pen of Count de Gramont's historiographer, the inimitable Anthony Hamilton.  It has already been mentioned that among the bevy of beauties surrounding King Jerome there was a certain Bianca Carrega, married to a certain money -grubbing Lafleche, who, for his wife's sake, had been created Baron von Keudelsheim. Bianca, who ranked as a Lady of Honour of the Court, had a sister bearing the very un-Italian name of Jenny. Maubreuil's name, after his return to cassel, was coupled, rightly or wrongly, with those of both sisters, as is shown by a report which Reinhard, Napoleon's family Ambassador, addressed to Champagny, the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The Emperor, of course, took no interest whatever in Maubreuil's amourettes---at least, so far as Maubreuil was concerned personally---and if Reinhard thought it his duty to report this matter, it was solely because Bianca Carrega's name was also coupled with King Jerome's." (The Wild Marquis: The Life and Adventures of Armand Guerry de Maubreuil, Marquis D'Orvault: 40-41)

4) Comtesse Collin de Plancy.
Diana von Pappenheim
5) Diana Rabe, Grafin von Pappenheim (1788-1844)
German aristocrat & royal mistress.
Palastdame in Kassel 1802, Hofdame in Weimar 1805
Lover in 1810.
a.k.a. Diane de Waldner de Freundstein, Diana, Freiin Waldner von Freundstein.
Daughter ofGottfried Waldner von Freundstein & Friederike Freiin von Stein zu Nord und Ostheim.
Wife ofWilhelm Maximilian, Graf Rabe von Pappenheim (1768-1813) mar 1806
Natural offspring:
1) Jenny von Gustedt, a.k.a. Jenny von Pappenheim.
2) Pauline von Schonfeld (1813-?)
"In 1908 Braun published the first of several works of considerable accomplishment and popularity. Im Schatten der Titanen: Erinnerungen an Baronin Jenny von Gustedt is an account of the life of Braun's maternal grandmother, Jenny von Gustedt (1811-1890). Von Gustedt was the illegitimate daughter of Napoleon's brother, Jerome Bonaparte (1784-1860), conceived during a passionate affair with Diana von Waldner Pappenheim (1788-1847), while Bonaparte was King of Westphalia." (Lily Braun, 1865-1916: German Writer, Feminist, Socialist: 82)

6) Ernestine von Pueckler und Limpurg (1784-1824)
a.k.a. Ernesta de Loewenstein.
Wife ofGeorg Wilhelm Ludwig von Lowenstein-Wertheim-Virneburg (1775-1855)
Natural offspring:
1) Charles Philippe Henri Bach (1811-1870)
2) Achille Bach (1813-1819)

7) Grafin von Bocholtz.

8) Grafin von Lowenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg.
Natural offspring:
1. Charles-Henri Bach (1811-?)
2. Melanie von Wertheim-Wietersheim

9) Giustina, Marchesa Bartolini-Badelli (1811-1903)
10) Madame de Coudras
wife of General de Coudras:

11) Madame Escalonne.
" . . . He had recently been captivated by the charms of a young girl, whose parents had shown a perfect willingness to sacrifice her in return for an official post for her father.  In order to keep her near the Court, the kind had found her a husband, in pursuance of his usual method, and rewarded this miserable creature also with a post.  When he left Cassel on his way to Kalisch, though he continued to write to the Queen daily, the Court and townspeople did not fail to notice that Madame Escalonne---such was the new favourite's name---had also left; and the next heard of her was that she was at Kalisch.  Yet the profligate commander was not only trusting to win himself immortal fame as a general, but also entertained expectations of being made King of Poland."  (Burlesque Napoleon: 295)

12) Mademoiselle Hennin
". . . (E)ven if one admit that Reinhard may have some private reason for wishing to prejudice Napoleon against Jerome, his reports must certainly have a basis of truth.  Their accounts of political imprudence, prodigal wastefulness, and even lax morals quite angered the Emperor at times.  His wrath was fully aroused on one occasion, when a certain Mademoiselle Hennin, a vivacious Parisian actress, was invited to Cassel.  By his orders she was summarily arrested and brought back to France; but in this we think that the Emperor was actuated less by a fear that his brother's susceptible heart might be fluttered by the lady's smiles than by a desire to check Jerome's general passion for amusement and frivolity. . . . " (Vizetelly, 1905, p. 26)

13) Maria Antonia von Hohenzollern-HechingenGrafin von Truchsess-Waldburg (1781-1831)
Wife ofFriedrich Ludwig Truchsess, Graf von Waldburg-Capustigail
" . . . Another intrigue in which he engaged had further consequences. A remark has already been quoted from the long report of Reinhard in January 1809 concerning a Madame de Truchsess, on whom Napoleon's envoy decided to reserve his judgment. She was not, indeed, of a character which it was easy to read hastily. The Countess of Truchsess-Waldburg was the first Grand Mistress of Catherine's household. She was a Hohenzollern by birth, and her husband, who succeeded Le Camus as Grand Chamberlain in Westphalia, had formerly been Wurttemberg's Minister in Paris. She was a woman of striking appearance. Reinhard goes so far as to describe her as 'the ornament of a Court not lacking in beauties,' and speaks of the grace and seductiveness which supplemented her looks. In the Palace she was naturally more popular with men than with women. But she was very reserved towards all except the sovereign themselves, and paid the penalty for this in being an object of suspicion. The manner in which she appealed to Jerome it is unnecessary to specify. Over the Queen she had a strong influence, which Catherine appeared to tolerate easily, but also rejoiced to shake off ultimately. The Countess dominated her by a combination of charm and of imperiousness. So far she was able to carry this domination that the Queen came to pass nearly all her days tete-a-tete with the Grand Mistress, and was thus cut off from other influences. The Court in revenge called her Catherine's gouvernante, and accused her of plying the Queen during the hours they spent together with scandal concerning itself. In particular, the French section of the Court alleged that the Countess poisoned Catherine's mind against the French at Cassel. It does not seem that this was true. Madame de Truchsess was a German, like her Queen, and there was as distinct division between the French and German members of the Court. But Catherine neither now nor afterwards showed any lack of loyalty to the nation into which marriage had brought her.  All that could be said against her at this period was that she allowed her Grand Mistress to isolate her to a great extent from all the ladies of her Court."  (Burlesque Napoleon: 216-218)

14) Marie Capinaki (1805-1879)
Lover in 1822
Wife ofBaron Charles Louis David (1783-1854), French diplomat, archaeologist & philologue
Natural offspring1. Jerome Frederic Paul David (1823-1882)
" . . . One might include, too, among the payments to members of the imperial family the special grants and the annuity secured by Baron Jerome David, as, although he was legally the son of Charles Louis David, the son pf David the great painter, it was generally admitted that his real father was none other than old Prince Jerome, the ex-King of Westphalia.  Baron David's mother was a beautiful Greek, named Maria Capinaki, whom Jerome, the Don Juan par excellence of the Bonapartes, met at Rome.  He became godfather to his own child, and that sponsorship subsequently served as an official explanation for the high favour to which Baron Jerome David gradually attained at the Tuileries. From being a deputy he rose in time to such positions as Vice-President of the Legislative Body and Minister of Public Works. . . ."  (The Court of the Tuileries, 1852-1870: 214)

15) Marie-Justine Semplais.
Marie-Therese Bourgoin
by Henri-Francois Riesener
16) Marie-Therese Bourgoin (1785-1833)
French actress.
a.k.a. the Goddess of Love & Pleasure.
Jerome Bonaparte & Catherine of Wurttemberg

Jerome Bonaparte Gallery.

Jerome Bonaparte king Westphalia:
Jerome Bonaparte

Jerome Bonaparte
8) Jerome Bonaparte was chosen to lead the diversion that would distract Wellington however he chose otherwise to actually attempt to capture the farm. A large battle ensued but Wellington was not affected.:
Jerome Bonaparte

Jerome Bonaparte
by Gilbert Stuart, 1804
@The Athenaeum
Portrait of an elegant young man in blue skirt and white shirt, in his hand a whip
(supposed to represent the Prince Jerome Bonaparte)
Portrait de Jérôme Bonaparte en costume d'officier de marine sur le pont d'un vaisseau de Bezzuoli Giuseppe:
Jerome Bonaparte
Jerome Bonaparte

Jerome Bonaparte
Muzéo, Edition d’art et de photo | Jérôme Bonaparte, roi de Westphalie de Constantin Abraham © RMN /Gérard Blot:
Jerome Bonaparte
King of Westphalia
by Constantin Abraham

Jerome Bonaparte
Jerome Bonaparte
Jerome Bonaparte
by Gilbert Stuart, 1804
[Fam1] [Ref1:Nico Narrates] [Ref2:MDHS] [Ref3:Royal Forums] [Ref4:Memoirs of Court of Westphalia]

Justine-Eleonore Ruflin, Princesse de Bonaparte (1832-1881)
Wife ofPrince Pierre Napoleon.
Her lover wasPrince Pierre Napoleon (1815-1881)
1. Christine Boyer (1771-1800), Daughter of wealthy wine merchant
(1st wife, in 1794-1800)
Christine-Egypte Bonaparte (1798-1847)

2. Alexandrine de Bleschamp (1778-1855)
French noblewoman
a.k.a. Madame Jouberthon
(lover, then 2nd wife, in 1802)
Laetitia Bonaparte 1804-1871)
Jeanne Bonaparte (1807-1829)
Paul Bonaparte (1809-1827)
Antoine Bonaparte (1816-1877)
Marie-Alexandrine Bonaparte (1818-1874)
Constance Bonaparte (1823-1876)

Lucien's physical appearance:  "He had a well shaped head, and well-moulded features.  Though much taller than his brother Napoleon, his physique was poor and he had a spinal irregularity that caused him to stoop slightly.  His hands were unusually large as were his feet and he gesticulated a great deal while talking.  With women he made every effort to be at his best and when he grew excited he became somewhat feline."  (Juliette Recamier: 25)

Lucien's spouse & children:  "The village of Saint Maximin-Marathon is not a magnificent residence.  Lucien-Brutus soon found this out, and ennui would have overpowered him had not love come to his aid.  Lucien-Brutus became enamoured, desperately enamoured, of Mademoiselle Christine Boyer, whose father was at the head of the little public-house of saint Marathon.  Lucien was then young, about twenty-three; he was in love for the first time, and he loved an angel of gentleness, virtue, and candour.  Christine saw herself adored by an ardent, hot-headed young man, employing against her rustic simplicity all the stratagems, all the resources, with which his short experience of the world had made him acquainted, and which his love taught him to use skillfully; and Christine was not proof against such an attack.  She loved as she was loved, but she forgot her duty, and Lucien was obliged to marry her in order to be happy; he loved her too fondly to think of all the unpleasant feelings which this alliance was likely to excite in his own family.  In fact, no sooner was General Bonaparte apprised of this marriage than he declared that he would never recognize the wife, and never meet his brother again.  A post was then given to Lucien in Germany, and the young couple came to Paris for a short time."  (The Home and Court Life of the Emperor Napoleon and His Family, Volume 1: 179-180)
Lucien Bonaparte
1st Principi di Canino
His lovers were:
1) Anna Maria Gordon.
"In the end Lucien did not actually leave, because he was taken up with writing his memoirs and having them simultaneously translated into English by a lady named Anna Maria Gordon, who for many years had been the nanny of his two youngest daughters. . . ."  (Napoleon and the Rebel: 261)
Juliette Bernard
Madame Recamier
2) Juliette BernardMadame Recamier (1777-1849)
French society leader.
" . . . Lucien Bonaparte met her at this period at M. Sapey's, at Bagatelle, and was struck with her beauty.  He asked permission to visit her at Clichy, and it was granted. The consequence may easily be foreseen.  Lucien --- at that time only twenty-four years of age ---became, although married, passionately enamoured of the greatest beauty of her time, and did not scruple to declare his passion.  Madame Recamier appealed to her husband, and requested that Lucien be shown the door.  M. Recamier observed thereupon that to break openly with the brother of General Bonaparte might compromise him and ruin his bank. . .  Madame Recamier did not like Lucien, so she acceded to the arrangement, and would sometimes laugh at this anguish, while at others she was terrified at his impetuosity.  This stormy kind of relationship lasted for a year, when Lucien, weary with the ineffectual pursuit, gave it up. . . ."  (The Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science and Art, Volume 49: 252)

About this time Lucien Bonaparte aspired to become Juliette Recamier's lover. Though he was married already his wife was delicate, and went little in society. This combination of circumstances gave Lucien freedom to flirt with all the handsome women he met. . .  Lucien was devoted to Madame Recamier, so much so in fact that he was ever ready to dance attendance on her slightest whim.  She is said to have dined with him several times at the more fashionable restaurants in Paris, and even welcomed him as she did many other famous men, to a spirit of social eclat and coquetry.  At this time Lucien was but twenty-five years of age, and was Secretary of the Interior."  (Juliette Racamier: 25)

"The official world set the fashion of festivity, and the winter was tolerably gay. Especially successful were the balls of Lucien Bonaparte, who occupied the sumptuous Brissac mansion, as Minister of the Interior. He was then in love with the fashionable beauty, Madame Recamier, the most charming in Paris. Since her first name was Juliette, he expressed his devotion under the pseudonym of Romeo. . . It seems that Madame Recamier did not let herself be moved by Lucien, although she was much flattered by his attentions. Her husband, moreover, advised her to be gentler with the brother of the First Consul. So Madame Recamier was one of the principal ornaments of the balls given by the Minister of the Interior. The author of the delightful book, 'Recollections of Madame Recamier,' tells us that she produced a very great effect at a dinner, followed by a concert, which Lucien gave to his brother, General Bonaparte. 'She was dressed in white satin, and wore a necklace and bracelets of pearls, as if she took a certain satisfaction in covering herself with things conspicuous for their whiteness, in order to efface them by the beauty of her complexion.' Fouche, the member of the Convention, afterwards the Duke of Otranto, came behind the chair in which she sat, and said to her in a low tone, 'The First Consul finds you charming.'" (The Wife of the First Consul: 53)

3) Laure JunotDuchesse d'Abrantes (1784-1838)

4) Madame Sari.
" Months went by fairly uneventfully, until the next spring.  Lucien had started writing his memoirs as well as a pamphlet on the One-Hundred Days. . .  The force inactivity was weighing on the Bonaparte brothers, who felt increasingly powerless and nervous.  A woman provoked even more tension between them: Madame Sari, an attractive though manipulative Creole woman, was rumoured to be having an affair with Lucien.  Her husband, a Corsican man named Mathieu Sari, who was in Joseph's service challenged Lucien to a duel.  The business was settled, yet again, by Joseph's intervention.  After the Saris' departure from London on May 1, 1835, Lucien announced his intention to leave for Italy, where Alexandrine was ill. . . ."  (Napoleon and the Rebel: A Story of Brotherhood, Passion, and Power: 261)

5) Marguerite-Josephine Weimer (1787-1867)
French stage actress.
a.k.a. Mademoiselle Georges.
"This conversation between the brothers was not very edifying, but hten neither was their conduct. Mademoiselle Georges, before taking the Consul's fancy had caught this rascal Lucien's eye.  He had been anxious to make her his mistress and with the end in view had entered upon somewhat discreditable negotiations with Mademoiselle Raucourt, under whom she studied, with the object of getting her to plead his cause with the pretty debutante.  He had even given her, as an earnest of his intentions, a recherche supper and a magnificent present.  It is further recorded that after the supper in question a contract drawn up in regular form had been duly signed, whereby Mademoiselle Raucourt undertook to  Lucien therefore had ample knowledge of his subject when he told Napoleon that Mademoiselle Georges was one of the most beautiful women in Europe. 'You might,' Napoleon retorted, 'have said, I thing without much risk of error, the most beautiful woman.' . . . ."  (The Love Affairs of Napoleon: 126-127)

a.k.a. Maria Anna Ferdinanda von Waldstein, Maria Waldstein
Daughter ofEmanuel Filibert Graf von Waldstein-Wartemberg and Maria Anna Theresia Prinzessin von und Liechtenstein
Wife ofJose Joaquin de Silva Bazan y Sarmiento  (1734-1802), 9th marques de Santa Cruz de Mudela, 10th marques del Viso, mar 1784, as his 2nd wife)

" . . . When Lucien Bonaparte arrived in Madrid as French ambassador in 1800, he took over part of the Santa Cruz palace, and he and Maria Anna (his senior by 12 years) became lovers."  (Neil Jeffares)

"Madame Baciocchi once passed a summer at Lucien's country house at Plessis-Chamant to act as hostess for her brother-in-law in company with the Marquise de Santa Cruz.  Madame de Santa-Cruz was a young woman whom Lucien had met while Ambassador at Madrid, and whom he had brought back with him from Spain as a sort of lady companion to while away the dullness of the long journey...."  (Trowbridge, 1908, p. 39)

Maria von Waldstein's personal & family background:  "Mariana Waldstein (1763-1808), Marquesa de Santa Cruz, a native Austrian, was one of the most prominent women in the late eighteenth-century Spain.  By her marriage she was the Duchess d'Alba's aunt and an intimate of Lucien Bonaparte."  (WGA)
Marie Bonaparte
Marie Bonaparte (1882-1962)
a.k.a. Princess George of Greece & Denmark, A.E. Narjani (pseudonym)

Princess Marie's love life.
"Princess Marie’s love life was colourful to say the least. Between 1913 and 1916 she had an affair with French Prime Minister Aristide Briand. She was great study in psychology and psychiatry and counted Sigmund Freud as her mentor. Prince George disapproved but Princess Marie declined to give up her interest in psychiatry. The couple had two children, Prince Petros and Princess Evgenia. Princess Evgenia married His Serene Highness Prince Dominic Radziwill who she divorced in 1948. He was succeeded by Prince Raymundo della Torre e Tasso the Duke of Castel. They divorced in 1965." (Henry Poole)

Princesse Marie Bonaparte's personal & family background.
Marie was the daughter of Prince Roland Bonaparte and Marie-Felix Blanc, the daughter f Francois Blanc, the principal real estate developer of Monaco and co-owner of the casinos in Monte Carlo and Homburg. Marie-Felix had a fortune of almost 14 million francs. (Scandalous Woman)

"Marie Bonaparte's paternal grandmother, Princess Pierre Bonaparte, lost all her money at the time of the Commune in 1871. To repair the family fortunes she arranged that her son, Prince Roland, should marry an heiress, Marie-Felix Blanc, whose father owned most of Monaco, including 97 percent of the Casino of Monte Carlo. Thus Marie Bonaparte, the only child of their union, became heiress to enormous wealth. In all other respects she was a most unfortunate child. Within a month of her birth in July 1882, her mother was dead of an embolism. Her father was a scholarly scientific amateur who became an expert on glaciers, but he was remote, preoccupied with study and saw little of his daughter. The household in which Marie Bonaparte was brought up by nurses and governesses was dominated by her paternal grandmother. This formidable woman considered that gregariousness pertained only to the lower orders, and so the young heiress was brought up without companions, isolated and overprotected. It is not surprising that she developed night terrors, morbid fears of illness and various obsessional anxieties." (NYT)

"Prince Roland's father, Prince Pierre Bonaparte, also married a woman who was lower-class and barely literate, but not until after she had given birth to Prince Roland and his sister Princess Jeanne.  The couple were not married with Imperial consent by Napoleon III, and he refused to recognize the marriage or the legitimacy of the two children. It wasn't until the Third Republic that their marriage was recognized and his wife entitled to bear the title of Princess. Still the Princess was not recognized by Parisian society which galled her for the rest of her life.  Princess Pierre arranged her son Roland's marriage to the daughter of Francois Blanc, who was the principal real-estate developer of Monaco, also co-owning the Casino in Monte Carlo as well as one in Homburg (Pierre's brother Prince Charles-Lucien Bonaparte broke the bank at Homburg winning 180,000 francs, the first person to do so.)  Marie-Felix had a fortune of almost 14 million francs.  She was also suffering from tuberculosis which was kept from her.  The race was on to get Marie-Felix pregnant before she died.  On July 2nd 1882, she gave birth to a daughter Princess Marie Bonaparte known to her family as Mimi.  A month later, but not before making out a will in her husband's favor, Marie-Felix died in his arms of an embolism." (Scandalous Woman)

Marie Bonaparte's physical appearance & personal qualities.
"Princess Marie Bonaparte is twenty-five years old, tall, slender, graceful, with a mass of dark brown hair and a pair of big brown eyes that can by turns sparkle with merriment and swim in languorous tenderness. She has been courted by many men, but was fancy free until this blond Hercules came from Greece, wooing her against the wish of his family. He was so handsome, so big, his blue eyes were so full of tenderness and honesty that the dainty French Princess gave him her heart." (Esoteric Curiosa[Ref1:Scandalous Women] [Ref2:Alexander Palace]

"Isolation is the breeding ground of fantasy and encourages susceptibility to romantic love. In adolescence Marie Bonaparte developed an unfortunate infatuation with a Corsican secretary of her father's who later blackmailed her successfully by threatening to publish her letters to him. Just before she was 17, her father launched her social life by giving a ball for her, but she was soon neurotically disabled by a variety of psychosomatic symptoms and became convinced that she would die prematurely like her mother. She became fascinated by the stories of Edgar Allan Poe, who later was the object of her psychoanalytic scrutiny. In 1907, when she was 25, her father chose Prince George of Greece as a suitable husband for her. She fell in love with him and had two children by him; the marriage lasted until Prince George's death in 1957, but it was a failure emotionally. George's affections were directed toward his uncle Waldemar rather than toward women, and on their wedding night, Marie Bonaparte recalled, he apologized, saying, ''I hate it as much as you do. But we must do it if we want children.'' She was driven by her unsatisfied sexual needs to take a variety of lovers, of whom the most famous was Aristide Briand, who was 11 times Premier of France.(NYT)

Her lovers were:
Lover in 1909.
Danish prince & French Foreign legion officer
Her husband's first cousin

"The marriage was distinctly odd from the beginning. The young couple visited uncle Valdemar at Bernsdorff and it became clear to Princess Marie that the bond between uncle and nephew was unnaturally close. They would spend days and nights together and when it came time for Prince George and Princess Marie to depart the former would weep inconsolably and Prince Valdemar would take to his sick bed. It was rumoured that Princess Marie also slept with Prince Valdemar and with his eldest son Prince Age." (Henry Poole)

2) Aristide Briand (1862-1932)
French prime minister

3) Rudolph Loewenstein (1898-1976)
Austrian psychoanalyst
"The children of psychoanalysts often find themselves seeking, or being pushed into undertaking, analysis, and Marie Bonaparte's children were no exception. Her son, Peter, however, chose for his analyst Rudolph Loewenstein, whom he knew to be one of his mother's lovers, which is stretching unorthodoxy to the limit. Although psychoanalysis did not cure Marie Bonaparte, it certainly liberated her from the stifling conventions in which she was brought up. In 1932 she wrote to Freud seeking his guidance. She and her son had acknowledged to each other a mutual temptation to incest. Freud advised against acting out their desires.(NYT)

4) Sigmund Freud.
"But as she soon discovered, no lover could overcome her frigidity. Her search for a cure led her to become friendly with a French psychiatrist, Rene Laforgue. He referred her to Freud, remarking that she had ''a marked virility complex.'' In 1925, when Marie Bonaparte consulted him, Freud was 69 and already afflicted with the cancer that eventually killed him. They took to each other immediately. Freud, who was never good at following his own injunctions about how psychoanalysts should conduct themselves, told her about his illness and his financial difficulties and was delighted when she told him that she loved him. She soon replaced Lou Andreas-Salome in Freud's affections and became so much his favorite analysand that he gave her two hours a day of his time.(NYT)

Mathilde's physical appearance & personal qualities.
" . . . She was probably the most cultured, and in her sphere the most talented, of all the Bonapartes. Of fine physique, very good looking when young, she always remained a woman of dignified presence, in spite of the corpulent figure and the pendent cheeks of advancing years. she cultivated art in several of its branches, her ability as a painter was real, and, from the establishment of the Empire until her death in January, 1904, she surrounded herself with artists and literary men, gathering at her residence---first in the Rue de Courcelles, and later in the Rue de Berri, as well as at St. Gratien, in the northern environs of Paris---a large company of talented and eminent people, many of whom she reconciled to the imperial regime, while others were at least induced to tolerate it by the influence of her personality, which attracted, pacified, and disarmed. . . ." (The Court of the Tuileries, 1852-1870: 233-234)

"She has sovereign beauty and the beauty of sovereigns, strength and sweetness, line and expression, style and charm, a kind heart for all the world, and banter for the fools. Here is the face of Napoleon, from the slope of the forehead to the despotic chin; fine eyes, both proud and sweet; a nose which is Italian, with mobile nostrils, rather than Greek with the immobility of marble; a charming mouth, showing kindliness in the upper lip, imperiousness in the lower. That art which she worships has given a supreme touch of enlightenment to this countenance, in which the prevailing characteristic is an intelligence that is lofty, masterful, impulsive. And how proud is that carriage, which laways brings to mind the saying of a certain highly placed lady of middle-class extraction: 'You can easily see that she was born to it.'" (The Princess Mathilde Bonaparte: 16)

"Better known, probably, is the tribute of Sainte-Beuve, generally called 'The Portrait of the Princess.' This was published first in 1862, to accompany a photograph of her in a series of portraits and biographies of the Bonaparte family, and was included later in the eleventh volume of the Causeries du Lundi. She has a high and noble forehead, made for the diadem. Her light golden hair leaves uncovered on each side of her broad, pure temples, and sweeps round to join again in wavy masses on the full, finely shaped neck. There is no lack of decision in the firmly chiselled features. A chance mole or two shows that Nature had no intention that the classic purity of line which is hers should be confused with any other's. The well-set eyes, impressive rather than large, of a clear brown huem gleam with the affection or the thought of the moment, and are not apt to feign or conceal. Their glance is quick and piercing; now and then they turn full toward you, not so much to fathom your thought as to convey their own. The whole physiognomy indicates nobility, dignity, and, as soon as it lights up, the union of grace and power, the gladness which springs from a healthy nature, frankness, and goodness, at times also ardent spirit. In a moment of just anger, the cheek flames. The admirably poised head rises from a dazzling and magnificent bust, and is joined to shoulders of statuesque smoothness and whiteness. The hands have no equal in the world---the hands of the Bonaparte family. The body is of medium stature, but is made to look tall by its suppleness and harmony of proportion. The carriage is instinct with race, and gives an undefinable impression of sovereignty and full-blooded womanhood.'"  (The Princess Mathilde Bonaparte: 16-17)

The blooming of a princess in Florence: "It was there [Florence] that Princess Mathilde grew into a beautiful and, thanks to the efforts of her mother, intelligent and educated young woman.  One of her father's guests write, 'she is entirely French, heart and soul,' with dark hair and the strong features of the Bonapartes.  But the gaiety and high life at Palazzo Orlandini ended when Catherine died of dropsy in 1835.  Always living far beyond his means and not without his wife's annuity, Jerome was desperately short of money.  He sent his offspring to relatives in Germany and moved into a villa at Quarto under Monte Morello.  After he father failed to engineer a match between her and her cousin Louis-Napoleon, heir to the imperial throne, Mathilde returned to live with him in Florence." (The Florentine)

Mathilde's various suitors: " . . . Mathilde had been sought by various suitors, to whom her beauty and name were a sufficient attraction to render them indifferent to the absence of a dowry. We need not pay too much attention to the statement in Marshal Canrobert's memoirs that she was asked in marriage by numerous princes, heirs to divers thrones, including the Duke of Orleans and the Tsarevich---although, as we shall hear, she herself believed that the Tsar Nicholas desired her as a daughter-in-law. Jerome, however, certainly would not have refused her to any prince who could give her, and himself at the same time, an assured position. The suitors of whose advances there can be no doubt are less illustrious in station. Prominent among these was Count Aguado, son of the Marquis of that name, head of an immensely rich banking family of Spanish origin. With his hand Mathilde might have had ten million francs, it is said. But hse preferred to wiat, and in was not till after her twentieth birthday that she listened to an offer. Whether her wedding proceeded or followed her father's is uncertain, owing to the fact that his was secret, and the exact date of it has not been discovered." (The Princess Mathilde Bonaparte: 28-29)

The Count Aguado: "Several French writers have pointed out how curious it is that, while Napoleon III was engaged to the Princess Mathilde and afterwards married the Empress Eugenie, Aguado courted them both. When the Montijos, mother and daughter, came to Paris to lieve, they were on very friendly terms with the Aguado family there. The Count made no disguise of his feelings, and was found by a friend weeping over the Prince-President's wooing of Eugenie."  (The Princess Mathilde Bonaparte: 29)

Princess Mathilde chooses to marry Anatole, Prince di San Donato: "The Princess Mathilde is said to have been attracted to Demidoff mainly because he was a Russian---in which case she was doomed to pay dearly for her gratitude towards the Tsar Alexander. His looks were not greatly in his favour, although those who describe him as ugly seem to have in mind his appearance in premature old age and to forget that when a young man, visiting Paris soon after his marriage, he was considered a striking figure in his brilliant Circassian uniform. Of the badness of his manners we shall soon hear. We cannot help suspecting that it was his income which chiefly commended the match to the young Princess, coupled with her desire to escape from Quarto. As Demidoff's wife she would be able to enter that France, which, though counted as a Frenchwoman she had never yet seen. . . ." (The Princess Mathilde Bonaparte: 32)
Anatoly Nikolaievich Demidov
1st Principe di San Donato
Wife of:
Russian industrialist, diplomat and arts patron.
a.k.a. Anatoly Nikolaievich Demidov, Prince Anatole Demidov, Prince Anatoly Demidoff.
mar 1841, div 1846.
Son ofCount Nikolai Nikitich Demidov Elisabeta Alexandrovna Stroganova.

The young man who caught her girlish fancy: "Mathilde, who mingled freely in Florentine society, was soon attracted by a foreigner, a strikingly handsome personality in his Circassian uniform. The young man who caught her girlish fancy was Count Anatole Demidoff, the Tuscan Prince di San Donato. To declare herself in his favour was to take a very bold step. She must have known that in doing so she was thwarting the secret intention of the Emperor of Russia. It is clear that the voice of passion must have been strong within her, since she might have looked far higher. In after years the Princess found pleasure in recalling this period of her youth, and in the company of a few intimate friends she often drew a comparison between what she was and might have been. Although the Tsar always affected to regard Napoleon III as a parvenu, and underneath the civilities of diplomacy to treat him as inferior to the kings and princes of older dynasties, it was his cherished plan to marry his son Alexander to a Bonaparte. And now she, on whom the honour of imperial choice had fallen, eluded him to follow an impulse which one day she would surely regret." (Women of the Second Empire: 88)

Prince Demidov had a handsome figure, noble rank and considerable wealth: "Anatole Demidoff, Prince di San Donato, in Tuscany, had more than his handsome figure and his rank to recommend him; he possessed considerable wealth. His father had been Russian Ambassador at Rome and Florence, and what was worth far more, he owned mines in the Urals---an inexhaustible source of revenue---which enabled him to surround himself with the luxury of a satrap. Count Demidoff's house was the rendezvous of foreigners. He liked to display the evidences of his wealth to a crown of spectators; it was the man's weakness to wish to dazzle society with his ponderous magnificence. His drawing-rooms were heavily gilded, filled with pictures, bronzes, and malachite. On great occasions very valuable jewels used to be exhibited in glass cases, and as he was not over-fastidious in the choice of his guests, two servants were always placed on guard to check the temptations of indiscreet amateurs. He kept in his pay a French theatrical company, whom he had originally engaged during his residence in Rome, to perform pieces from the 'Gymnase' in his residence, the Ruspoli palace. Ill, aged, and crippled, he never ceased giving entertainments, and the denser the noisy, pushing crowd which filled his rooms, the better was he pleased. His peculiarities were notorious, as was also his Asiatic ostentation---devoid alike of taste and moderation. His benevolence, however, was no less renowned; some of his generous deeds were of the most useful and enlightened description. He founded in Florence, a valuable picture gallery, a school and a richly endowed asylum. At his death public opinion decided that the services Count 'Nicolo' had rendered to the city of the Medicis entitled him to a statue, which was accordingly erected in one of the public squares. Anatole Demidoff, on whom the reigning Grand Duke had conferred the title of Prince of San Donato (from the name of his Tuscan estates), continued and even extended still further this large and luxurious way of life, amid splendour, philanthropy, and artistic interests. He showed, however, more discernment and greater culture. He had a certain amount of literary talent. We have from his pen some impressions of his travels and a series of articles, in the form of letters, on the Russian Empire, which were published in the Debats. He earned the reputation of a Maecenas. By weeding out and adding to the collections bequeathed to him he greatly raised their value. . . ." (Women of the Second Empire: 88)

A princely rank, upon marriage, fit for a Bonaparte princess: "By the way, Aurora’s son inherited his uncle’s title Prince of San Donato (as per his Villa San Donato in Florence). The title was created for Anatoly Demidov by Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, so that Mathilde Bonaparte, the daughter of Napoléon’s brother Jérôme, would not lose her title of princess when marrying him. If anyone of you has visited Portoferraio on Elba, Anatoly was the same Demidov who built the museum below Napoléon’s private house Villa di San Martino, the ghastly museum that completely ruins the site’s historical and artistic value." (Amateurs Venture on Life)

A wealthy Bonaparte princess: " . . . It is a fact that financially her position was enviable. In 1860 her income---already very ample---was increased by the award of an annual subsidy of 300,000 francs, which, added to the 200,000 of her dowry that had been returned to , and the income she drew yearly from Demidoff, made up her total revenues to 700,000 francs---a handsome sum with which to maintain the position of a princess!. . . These special grants ended with the Empire which awarded them. Princess Mathilde's fortune during the last years of her life consisted almost exclusively of the Demidoff allowance, an annuity of 200,000 francs (not 200,00o roubles), which she spent lavishly in keeping up her position, indulging her hospitable tastes, and in private charities. Beyond her collections of pictures, jewels, and other valuable objects, she left no capital worth speaking of."  (Women of the Second Empire: 99-100)

Marriage dowry?"As was expected the marriage of Mathilde and Demidoff was unhappy from the very outset. There were scenes and disputes resulting from the gross misbehaviour of her husband, and from the stinging reproaches of the high-spirited wife. It was after one of these quarrels that Demidoff presented to the Princess as a peace offering a magnificent gold casket in which there were some valuable jewels. While they were admiring it together he pointed out to her a spring which opened a secret drawer. In in she found the memorandum of her father's immense debt to her husband, and the former's letter accepting Demidoff's offer of marriage as a cancellation of the debt." (A Lady of Trance @ Otago Witness)

Prince Demidov's peculiarities: " . . . But he had not inherited the tastes and wealth of his father without some of his peculiarities. He was abrupt in action, capricious in mood, and despotic in temper. He was especially subject to fits of violent jealousy, though the license he permitted himself in the matter of conjugal fidelity hardly warranted his attitude. He was ardent in the pursuit of pleasure, and lived at a reckless pace. With his natural gifts, his noble blood, and his elegance, it might have been supposed that he yielded to some compelling passions, inspired even in the frivolous circles which were the scene of his excesses. But this was not the case; it was known that the demi-mondaines to whom he sacrificed one of the handsomest princesses in Europe cost him exceedingly dear. . . ." (Women of the Second Empire: 90)

Marital breakdown, separation and settlement: ". . .  One day, however, he chose to consider that his exclusive rights had been infringed, and showed his displeasure in a manner so truly barbaric as to render a separation inevitable. The pair had just returned from Paris, where the Count and Countess Demidoff occupied a magnificent house in the Rue St. Dominique. On the occasion of their return to Florence the reception-rooms of the San Donato palace were the scene of a brilliant gathering. The dancers were moving in a maze of light and music. Suddenly, in the midst of this animated scene, before some hundreds of spectators who watched in dumb amazement, the Prince, in a fit of savage and unreasonable jealousy, walked straight up to his young wife and slapped her on both cheeks. Beneath this public insult she remained speechless; then quickly regaining her self-possession, she withdrew to her own apartments. In the morning, without seeing her husband again, she made her way to St. Petersburg, confident of finding protection and justice with her maternal uncle, Nicholas I. The Emperor was the more inclined to accord her both, because he was attached to her, whereas, on the contrary, he had no liking whatsoever for Prince Demidoff." (Women of the Second Empire: 90-91)

The imperial deed of separation: "A Russian subject was in question, most of whose property was in Russia. Nicholas could therefore speak and act with authority, for he held in his hand a guarantee for the man's submission. He (Nicholas I) undertook himself to make a settlement of the property, which should secure for his niece, the Princess Mathilde, a handsome independence. He authorized the deed of separation, ordered Demidoff to pay her 8,000 pounds a year, and forbade him to occupy the same place of residence as this wife. The Prince di San Donato, headstrong as he was, found himself compelled for once to yield to a stronger will than his own. . . ." (Women of the Second Empire: 91)

Who was really responsible for marital rupture beyond repair?: " . . . In the private history of Princess Mathilde, Anatole Demidoff has always borne the entire responsibility for the rupture. All the gifts and advantages of his brilliant education were neutralized by his violent temper and unbridled dissipation. Yet he was alone to blame? Were his jealous rages purely the outcome of his imagination? It is but just to plead the extenuating circumstances of the case. Mathilde was handsome, with the kind of beauty that calls forth homage and devotion; in Florence she was surrounded by admirers, some of whom, such as the Baron de Poilly, Captain Vivien, and Nieuwerkerke, were extremely pressing. Any man in Demidoff's circumstances might have felt a breath of alarm. In all justice he might have been treated a little less severely. He certainly contributed handsomely to the prince stae kept up by the wife he had wedded, whom he was forbidden ever again to see. It was not till long afterwards, when Demidoff, worn out by pleasure, was merely a living wreck, that this injunction was withdrawn. 'What does it matter now?' said Alexander II. He had tried to open up a way of reconciliation by touching the most sensitive chord in Mathilde's heart---her cult of the past---by parading the warmth of his Bonapartist convictions in the purchase of the villa in Elba where Napoleon had spent his exile, and in the collection of relics at extravagant prices. In vain. The blow his hand had dealt still burnt her cheek, and the remembrance was like a wound in the proud heart of Mathilde." (Women of the Second Empire: 91-92)

"By the time the Demidoffs received the Tsar's permission to leave Russia, their marriage was already in trouble. First they attempted to maintain appearances in public. Both were guilty of adultery, but strangely enough, Mathilde was not prepared to bear the huge expenses of Anatole's infidelities, rather than the fact of their existence. Once Mathilde stooped to insulting Anatole's mistress in public at a fancy-dress ball. Anatole, in his turn, did not find anything better to than slap his wife across her face. After that he became 'a monster', 'a brutal savage' and so on in the eyes of the refined French public. In September 1846 Mathilde, determined to separate from Anatole, fled from his hotel with her lover, the Comte de Nieuwerkerke, taking back her family jewelry, which her father had sold to Anatole, and corresponding moral corresponding moral compensation from Anatole's family jewelry. In this moment of crisis Mathilde turned for help to her cousin, Tsar Nicholas I. She sent him correspondence explaining the basis of her momentous decision. Tsar Nicholas was only glad to oblige. Unfortunately, Anatole and his behavior were 'blackened' and most likely beyond all recognition in the correspondence. Anatole pleaded for Mathilde to return and, in co-ordination with his father-in-law offered her lodging at Jerome's residence. His personal letters to Mathilde were short on tact and understanding. Anatole lambasted her decision to move our of her lover's residence and into a religious convent while she awaited the Czar's instruction as 'the most ridiculous combination of decisions of our tines. . . ." (Anatole and Mathilde: Story of their Marriage

Her lovers were:
French sculptor & civil servant
Lover in 1845-1869.
"At the same time she was a Bonaparte, the daughter of old Jerome, the hero of a hundred gallantries; and after brushing mere scandals aside, it must be said that her name was a associated with those of two men of her time, first Alfred Emilien, Count de Nieuwerkerke, and secondly Claudius Popelin.  Nieuwerkerke, Superintendent of Fine Arts under the Empire, a tall, handsome, bearded man, was of Dutch origin, but was born in Paris in 1811.  He married a Mlle. de Montessuy (who predeceased him), and survived until 1892, when he died at Lucca.  During the Empire his relations with Princess Mathilde were matter (sic) of common notoriety.  His official functions frequently exposed him to attack, but she upheld him against all comers, and at one time had a very serious dispute respecting him with her brother, Prince Napoleon, who, in order to annoy her, had omitted Nieuwerkerke's name from some artistic commission which he had been selected to appoint." (The Court of the Tuileries, 1852-1870: 236)

"Princesse Mathilde's is illustrative of how a 'salon' in the best-understood sense of the word could operate.  The Princess, niece of Napoleon I and separated from her Russian husband Count Anatole Demidoff, whose fortune from the mines of the Urals bolstered her own, held both literary dinners and Sunday evening salons from 1851.  She played no small role in promoting the cause of her cousin, the future Napoleon III, after he returned from exile in 1848.The Princess was nicknamed 'Notre Dame des Arts' by Saint-Beuve; her niece Princesse Caroline Murat, described her salon as 'a court in itself' which 'had no equal in the nineteenth century for length of ascendancy' and was 'the home and centre of Parisian intellect'.  During the Second Empire her sculptor lover Comte Alfred-Emilien de Nieuwerkerke became director of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts through her influence, and her salon became the centre of an informal network of patronage.  She manipulated elections to the Academie francaise and helped Saint-Saens to avoid military service.  According to the violinist Eugene Sauzay, her 'music salon' consisted of four rooms, of which two had pianos, a third was reserved for string chamber music, and the fourth a chamber organ; when serious performances were given, she imposed silence on her guests, something rarely experienced in public concerts.  after 1870, the Princess's political influence diminished, her imperial pension stopped and mansion in the rue de Courcelles expropriated, but she maintained her salon in barely less grand surroundings in the rue de Berry.  She still attracted composers including Bizet, Gounod and Vicomtesse de Grandval, and writers such as Coppee, Flaubert, Edmond de Goncourt, Hugo, Renan, Taine and, in the early 1890s, Barres and the young Proust, in whose A l'ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs she appears in person."  (French Music Since Berlioz: 102-103)

"Back in Paris [after her separation from her husband, Prince Anatole Demidov], she sought solace in the arms of her own lover, the French sculptor, Count Emilien de Nieuwerkerke, whom she had met a year earlier at Villa San Donato, her palatial marital home in Florence.  She also set about helping her cousin Louis-Napoleon, in his bid to be elected president of France, putting her jewellery up as a collateral to finance his successful campaign.  following a coup d'etat in December 1851, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte became Napoleon III, ruler of the Second French Empire, making Mathilde, after Eugene, the emperor's wife, the second most important woman in France.  A patron of the arts and literature, Mathilde soon established a glittering saon in Pris, frequented by, among others, Marcel Proust, Gustave Flaubert and Jean-Auguste Ingres." (The Florentine)

2) Charles Giraud (1802-1881)
French lawyer & politician.
a.k.a. Charles-Joseph-Barthelemy Giraud.
Minister of Education.

3) Claudius Popelin (1825-1892)
French painter, engraver & enameller
"Later, Claudius Popelin, the painter, engraver, and enameller, took Nieuwerkerke's place beside the Princess.  The son of a Paris merchant, and born in 1825, Popelin was a widower at the time, having lost his wife in 1869. Ten years later the Almanach de Gotha stated the Princess Mathilde and M. Paupelin (sic) had been married in England in December, 1871. It is certain that the Princess was in England at the date mentioned, but subsequent tot he statement of the Almanach de Gotha a paragraph signed A. Renal was published in Le Figaro declaring, on the Princess's behalf, that the assertions respecting the marriage was (sic) untrue. Nevertheless, down to the time of Popelin's death in 1892, the Princess's intimates were certainly under the impression that he was at least morganatically her husband.  On the whole, whatever lapses there may have been in the Princess Mathilde's life, we feel that they may be more readily condoned than those of any other member of the imperial family. . . ." (The Court of the Tuileries, 1852-1870: 236-237)

Princesse Mathilde's husband's lovers were:

1) Ernestine Duverger.
French actress.
"It is strange indeed that the death of Ernestine Duverger should have remained so entirely unnoticed by the French foreign press. For, the daughter of a washerwoman, she achieved fame at the age of 15 as the heroine of a most sensational escapade in connection with the late Duke of Orleans, eldest son of King Louis Philippe, and then heir to the throne of France, and not long afterwards became the final cause of the separation of Princess Mathilde Bonaparte from her Russian husband, Anatole Demidoff, Prince of San Donato, who, when he died at Paris in 1870, left untold wealth to Ernestine, the latter subsequently developing into an eccentric and miserly old woman, whose sole enjoyment used to be to empty the contents of her many safes on the carpet, and then to plunge her bare her arms among the jewels of every description which she possessed in untold quantities. Yet Princess Mathilde felt no grudge against Ernestine Duverger, and perhaps, on the whole, was rather grateful to her having furnished her with a cause of separation from Demidoff." (A Lady of Trance @ Otago Witness)

2) Fanny de La Rochefoucauld (1807-1848)
Daughter ofFrancois XIII, 8th Duc de la Rochefoucauld Marie-Francoise de Tott
Wife ofArmand Alexis, Comte de Montault mar 1828.

3) Juliette Drouet (1806-1883)
French courtesan & actress.
a.k.a. born Julienne-Josephine Gauvain, Bella Juliette, Mademoiselle Drouet.
Daughter ofJulien Gauvain, French tailor & Marie Marchandet.
French housemaid [Ref1]

"Juliette Drouet was twenty-six. She had had many lovers, by one of whom, the sculptor Charles Pradier, she had had a daughter. Her chief protector, at the opening of 1833, was the Russian prince Anatole Demidoff, who supported her in a luxury appropriate to her astonishing beauty. Although she was an indifferent actress, her looks had already made her celebrated -- a figure whose classical proportions had inspired the sculptures of her lover Pradier, an oval face whose delicate features and gentle eyes showed no trace of the hardness that might be expected in one whose career had been that of a courtesan. And in fact, launched into the demi-monde almost by accident, after a convent upbringing, Juliette had never acquired the cynicism appropriate to her role. 'It seems to me,' she had written to a lover, 'that my soul has its desires as well as my body, and a thousand times more ardent. . . I would leave you, I would abandon you, the world and life itself, if I could find a man whose soul would caress my soul, as you caress and love my body.'" (The Young Romantics: Writers & Liaisons, Paris 1827-37: 92)

4) Maria Kalergis (1822-1874)
Polish countess, pianist & patron of the arts.
a.k.a. Maria Nesselrode, Maria Kalergis-Muchanow.

Marie-Valentine-Josephine de Sainte-Aldegonde.
Daughter ofComte Charles-Camille de Saint-Aldegonde & Adelaide-Josephine de Bourlon de Chavagne.
Wife ofAlexandre-Edmond de Talleyrand-Perigord, 3rd Duc de Dino, mar 1839.
" . . . As it happened, she made a most unhappy marriage.  Born at Trieste in 
May, 1820, she was wedded at Florence, on November 1, 1840, to Prince Anatole Nicolaievich Demidoff, of San Donato, who was her senior by seven years. One is reminded of the irony of life on reading the effusive letters by which that young Russian millionaire announced the consent of the Princess's father to other members of the Bonaparte family.  His dearest wish was about to be gratified, his happiness knew no bounds.  Five years alter he and his wife were separated.  He had treated her with great cruelty, and it was the Emperor Nicholas who insisted on the separation.  According to one account, the Czar discovered the situation during a stay he made at Florence---probably after his visit to London in 1844.  In any case the separation was effected by his authority, and the Prince Demidoff, whose income was then about 90,000 pounds a year, was ordered to pay his wife 20,000 pounds annually, and to abstain from going at any time to any place within a hundred miles 
of where she might be living.  Demidoff was compelled to obey, for fear lest all his property in Russia should be confiscated.  It is thus an autocrat is able to enforce his decision, which, in the case in point, was a just one.

Prince Demidoff survived until May, 1870, and for a good many years Princess Mathilde enjoyed the jointure fixed by the Czar, in addition to her civil-list allowance. this enabled her to live in dignity, entertain freely, assist many struggling artists and writers, and do no little good unostentatiously in various ways.  She was long the providence of the village of St. Gratien, where she had her country seat." (The Court of the Tuileries, 1852-1870: 235-236)

Princess Mathilde Bonaparte's Lifestyle.
Veranda of Princesse Mathilde Bonaparte's
Hotel @ Rue de Courcelles
@ Pinterest
Princesse Mathilde's collection of pictures, jewels & other valuable objects.
PRINCESS MATHILDE BONAPARTE DIAMOND ROSE BROOCH~ Created for for Napoleon's niece by Theodore Fester in 1855, the gold-and-silver-setting rose has 250 carats of diamonds. Mathilde ran one of Paris' most distinguished literary and artistic salons. When she died in 1904, the Rose was auctioned and sold by Cartier to Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt III, who wore it at the waist or bodice for portraits and other formal occasions in her role as “Queen of Society.”:
Diamond Rose Brooch
" . . . Created for Napoleon's niece by Theodore Fester in 1855, the gold-and-silver setting rose has 250 carats of diamonds. Mathilde ran one of Paris' most distinguished literary and artistic salons. When she died in 1804, the Rose was auctioned and sold by Cartier to Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt III, who wore it at the waist or bodice for portraits and other formal occasions in her role as 'Queen of Society.'" (Pinterest)
Historic Pink Diamond
" . . . [T]he Historic Pink', a ring with a fancy vivid pink diamond weighing 8.72 carats and with a classic non-modified cushion, which is estimated to sell between 14,000,000 to 18,000,000 US dollars, during a preview at the Sotheby's auction house in Geneva, Switzerland, Wednesday, May 6, 2015. This auction will take place in Geneva on May 12, 2015." (Global News)

References for Mathilde Bonaparte section.
Mathilde Bonaparte--Napoleon's Niece @ (with numerous pictures)
The Demidovs (also Demidoffs) @ ABC Gallery.
Princess Mathilde Bonaparte's Vanderbilt Rose Brooch @Jewels du Jour.
The Princess Mathilde Bonaparte

Napoleon-Joseph-Charles Bonaparte, Prince Napoleon (1822-1891)
a.k.a. Plon-Plon.
Blanche d'Antigny
His lovers were:
1) Blanche d'Antigny (1840-1874)
French actress and courtesan.
a.k.a. Marie Ernestine Antigny.
Daughter ofJean Antigny, a sacristan at a local church & Eulalie-Florine Guillermain.

"Blanche (born Marie-Ernestine Antigny), is widely believed to have been the inspiration for Emile Zola’s infamous courtesan, Nana. She certainly met Nana’s physical description, burnt through money at the same rate, and died a similar death to the heroine at the young age of 33. A part-time actress, she could list a Russian prince, Maharajahs and French bankers amongst her conquests. She kept a magnificent set of rooms in Paris, draped with turquoise satin and populated by liveried footmen, where she threw extravagant parties for her friends. She is infamous for appearing in public draped in diamonds." (Decadent Handbook's Blog) [Bio3:Amis et Passiones] [Bio4:Amis] [Bio5:Mossman] [Bio6] [Bio7:Blanche d'Antigny Blog]

" . . Blanche d'Antigny was 'imported' to Russia by its (sic) Prince only to be exported by the Empress, whom she had offended by buying a dress which was supposed to have been reserved for her Royal Highness. She is considered to be the model on whom Emile Zola based his famous courtesan Nana. . . ." (Writing with a Vengeance: n.p. )

2) Charlotte de Carbonnel de Canisy.
Lover in 1873.

3) Cora Pearl.

4) Marie-Anne Detourbay.
Lover in 1858.

Pauline Bonaparte
Princess Borghese
Duchess of Guastalla
by Francois-Joseph Kinson, 1808
@ Museo Napoleonico, Rome
Pauline Bonaparte, Princesse Borghese (1780-1825)
a.k.a. Marie-Pauline Bonaparte, Paulina Borghese, Pauline Borghese, la Diva Paolina la Jolie Paulette (by her friends), the Mistress of Amusements (by Napoleon I), Citizeness Leclerc (in her marriage license), the Three Crowned Courtesans (together with sisters Caroline & Elise).
Daughter of:
Wife ofCamillo Borghese (1775-1832), Italian aristocrat
6th Principe di Sulmona 1800, 7th Principe di Rossano, Prince of the Empire 1805, General of the Empire, Prince of France 1804, Chief of the Imperial Guards 1806, Duca e Principe di Guastalla 1806, Governor-General of Piedmont, Genoa & Parma 1808, Supreme Commander of French divisions 1809,
a.k.a. born Camillo Filippo Ludovico Borghesemar 1803

Camillo, Prince Borghese's physical appearance & personal qualities: "In Paris, meanwhile, Napoleon cultivated the company of Cardinal Caprara, Pius VII's legate. It was Caprara who presented to the first consul in April 1803 Prince Camillo Borghese, a Roman citizen of high birth and great wealth, whose arrival in the French capital had already made a great stir the previous month. Although he was not tall, Prince Borghese had a neat figure, a handsome face, and exotic Mediterranean looks. "This head with coal black eyes and mane of jet black hair, it seemed to me, must contain not only passionate but great and noble ideas,' Laure Junot wrote soulfully of her first encounter with the prince. To add to his attractions, Prince Borghese paid great attention to his dress, and still more to his horses, eclipsing with his coach and four even the equipage of the Russian count Demidov, which had till then the showiest in Paris. But then Camillo Borghese had the advantage, as excited Parisians turned accountants estimated, of possessing rent roll of two million francs a year." (Pauline Bonaparte: Venus of Empire: 92)

son of Prince Marcantonio Borghese & Anna Maria Salviati
"Rome has always absorbed her conquerors; perhaps it was this consideration that made her welcome Pauline Bonaparte as Princess Camillo Borghese. Pauline, widowed, had returned from the Indies and had been put under the strict chaperonage of one of her brothers' lest her mourning take an undesirable direction.' Camillo was dark and handsome and one of the great princes of Italy; he was also, according to both history and the tradition of his family, quite remarkably stupid. Perhaps any man would have seemed dull to her beside Napoleon, who some gossips thought was her lover. . . [T]he marriage of Pauline and Camillo was never a happy one. The Duchess d'Abrantes, in her memoirs, tells of Pauline stating that to be with her husband was to be along . . . 'That idiot!' Nevertheless she valued the marriage, since it meant being 'a real princess.' The Duchess shows her to us as queening it over her sisters-in-law, with all the Borghese diamonds sewed to her green velvet dress. She had no taste, the Duchess says, and she looked beautiful." (The Secret Archives of the Vatican: 289)

". . . Known for her beauty, her impulsiveness and her questionable moral sense, Pauline loved Napoleon and was the least demanding of all his siblings." (Shannon Selin)

Pauline's physical appearance and personal qualities:
From Madame Ducrest:
"She was the loveliest woman I ever beheld; there was not the slightest imperfection in her delicious face, to which was joined an elegant figure and the most seductive grace.  She was an incomparable beauty, but she had little or no instruction, no conversational powers, and her manners were exceedingly dissolute. . . ."  (The Marriages of the Bonapartes, Volume 2: 227)

Pauline's Love Life:  "She [Pauline, Napoleon's favourite sister was a born cocotte. Created a princess, she lived like a courtesan, and yet of all the tribe of pinch beck kings and queens and princesses, moved over the European chess-board by a ruthless player, she is the most warmly human and vivid, with a touch of the Napoleonic fire.... She reduced her lovers to abject slaves.  At a picnic she commanded one of her court to lie on his stomach that she might sit on his back, and another to lie on his back that she might rest her feet on his stomach."  (Bingham, 2006, p. 74)

Pauline's First Unknown Lover:  "According to Peltier, Pauline had her first lover at Marseilles in 1794, that is to say when she was fourteen.  He omits to inform us of his name, but makes up for that by telling us that she bathed stark naked in the harbour....."  (Fleischmann, 1914, p. 10)

Four Scores!:  In 1812 we find Pauline with four lovers! Lieutenant de Brack, a brilliant soldier, who seems to have been well fitted to become an intimate acquaintance of the Princess' without any waste of time; Commander Durchand, whom we shall meet again about 1814; Canouville, who is far away amidst the snows of Russia; and lastly, Talma.  Such is the lovers' four-in-hand that she sets herself to drive; God knows how and with what attention at awkward moments! (Fleischman, 2004, pp. 202-203)

Swinging Six Weeks:  "General Hardy reported to his wife in France that, at Port-au-Prince, Madame Leclerc was bored to death, and he was content to have left Madame Hardy at home.  However, in the years following the expedition to Saint-Domingue, exotic rumours circulated about the six weeks that Pauline had spent in the capital without her husband, and, as her fame spread, so did the tales of her infamous doings during this period.  She succumbed to the 'island vice,' runs one account, and indulged in lesbian affairs with two women at a time, then passed from their arms to those of General Jean-Francois Debelle, known as the 'Apollo of the French army.'  Another lascivious report asserts: 'The tropical sun was, they say, astonished by the ardor of her passions.'  A third source claims that she experimented with white and black lovers to see which she preferred.  Finally there is the accusation that she conducted an affair with General Jean Robert Humbert, a notoriously cruel French administrator. Her later employment in France of a large black page to carry her to her bath and act as outrider on her carriage did nothing to dispel the rumors."  (Fraser, 2012, n.p.)

Her lovers were:
Russian general & ambassador
"Pauline's energy in these yeats was prodigious, and the tales of her conquests legion, featuring, among others, the wasp-waisted Russian general Prince Alexander Tchernicheff, emissary of the czar. . . . "  (Fraser, 2009, p.179)

2) Auguste Duchaud.
French military officer.
"Neither Pauline's concern for Jules de Canouville, her fondness for Forbin, not her current relationship with Talma precluded her finding a new admirer at the baths.  Auguste Duchaud, an oversize artillery officer who had served in Spain under Suchet and Sebastiani, was convalescing at Aix-les-Bains following wounds incurred at the Battle of Valencia.  With Pauline's encouragement he became a devoted visitor to the Maison Chevaley.  But for some time he remained in awe of the tiny princess and her autocratic ways. One day Laure d'Abrantes found him among the company gathered at the Maison Chevaley.  As Laure tells us, the short climb from the spa to the house was steep and some of it not negotiable by horse.  In consequence her footwear and hose and those of other guests were irksomely dirty upon arrival, in contrast to those of their elegant hostess---and, mysteriously, those of Lieutenant Captain Duchaud.  He was something of a dandy, and his unsullied knee boots were gleaming with wax."  (Venus of Empire: The Life of Pauline Bonaparte: 190)

"He left for Rome one day, and did not return, being replaced by one Duchaud, who had been Napoleon's orderly officer and of whom it was said that Napoleon had wanted to be rid. Duchaud was a very handsome man and, it was rumoured, was the lover, or one of the lovers, of Princess Pauline." (With Napoleon's Guns: The Military Memoirs of an Officer of the First Empire: 42)

3) Casimir de Montrond (1769-1843)
French aristocrat & diplomat
Comte de Montrond, Comte de Mouret
Lover in 1811.
a.k.a. born Philippe-Francois-Casimir de Montrond, le Beau Montrond.
Son ofAngelique-Marie d'Arlus, Comtesse de Montrond.
Husband ofAimee de Coigny.
" . . . Her son Casimir remained in Paris during the Terror, and was imprisoned at Saint-Lazare, with the Duchess de Fleury, who, after her divorce, had resumed her name of Coigny; it was for her that Andre Chenier wrote "La Jeune Captive.' She owed her life to the intervention of Montrond; for a hundred louis he obtained her liberty as well as his own. After the 9th Thermidor, he married her, and they left together for England. Their honeymoon was not long; she obtained a divorce and returned to France, where she died in 1830 at the age of forty-four. There can be little doubt that the Memoirs which she left must have been of great interest; they were probably not flattering to her husband. Unfortunately, they were confided by her to Talleyrand, and they have disappeared; Montrond evidently obtained their suppression from his powerful friend." (The Nation, Volume 60: 234)

" . . . In August, 1792, he resigned, which ultimately led to his being put under lock and key at Saint-Lazare. There he came to know that frivolous, amorous, Aimee de Coigny, a fellow-prisoner . . .  We know how M. de Montrond married her, to abandon her soon afterwards, flitting from bedroom to bedroom, from Mme. Recamier's to Mme. Hamelin's, from the sentimental surrender of Lady Yarmouth, who gave him a son, Lord Seymour, to Pauline's voluptuous frenzies. . . . ." (Pauline Bonaparte and Her Lovers: 152-157)

Pauline's lover: " . . . That summer (1811)...Pauline embarked at Aix-la-Chapelle on an affair with 'le beau Montrond,' the fashionable diplomat and confidant of Talleyrand...."

Montrond's personal & family background: "Montrond was a personality of the period.  Philippe Francois Casimir, as his Christian names ran, was born at Besancon, on February 10, 1769, the son of an officer in the French Guards, and of a fiery royalist mother who subsequently returned from her voluntary exile pitted by smallpox and deaf.  At nineteen years of age Montrond was a lieutenant in the Mestre-de-Camp Cavalry, and he took part in the early fights of the 1792 campaign, as A.D.C., successively, to Mathieu Dumas, Theodore de Lameth, and La Tour-Manbourg.  His dandified ways were famous.  'What scent will M. le Comte use this campaign?' his valet used to ask before each departure.  M. de Montrond avoided taking apart in those that savoured of Jacobinism.  In August, 1792, he resigned, which ultimately led to his being put under lock and key at Saint-Lazare. There he came to know that frivolous, amorous, Aimee de Coigny, a fellow-prisoner . . . ." (Pauline Bonaparte and Her Lovers: 152-157)

Montrond's personal appearance & personal qualities: " . . . He was 'suave, fair, and rosy, with a Faublas figure, Hercules' shoulders, and the gracefulness of Adonis; a sword and spirit which commanded the respect of men, an eye and an energy which promised protection to women.'  To this kind of protection Pauline was never averse.  The period, however, was unfortunately not one when she was wholly free to make the most of it.  M. de Montrond belonged to ittle cliques in which devotion to the Emperor was not regarded as essential.  He was implicated in certain intrigues which were not unknown to the police, and he let fall epigrams and witticisms which did not pass unheeded.  Napoleon took advantage of these facts to relieve Pauline of a lover who was inclined to boast. 'She was tenderly loved by her brother,' says Meneval,' in spite of some minor annoyances which she occasionally gave rise to.'  Was M. de Montrond one of these 'minor annoyances'?  No exact information is available, but the police requested him to take a rest after his amorous exertions, in the department of Dreux-Nethes at Antwerp, where he was thoughtfully recommended to the special care of the prefect, M. le chevalier de Voyer d'Argenson.  There he took up his quarters, in 1811, at the time Pauline was staying at the watering-place of Spa.  From Antwerp to Spa was put a few posts. M. de Montrond promptly covered them, and came to reside in the same house as his imperial mistress. 'The result of this stay was, it is said, a request for pardon for him transmitted by the Princess to her illustrious brother, but the request did not meet with the hoped-for result.'  It succeeded, nevertheless, thus far, that the exile was allowed nearer the capital, being authorized to stay at Ham, in Picardy, and subsequently at Chatillon-sur-Seine.  By this date it seems fairly clear that he had broken off all relations with Princess Borghese who, on the other hand, we know to have been fully occupied with m. de Canouville.  It was, therefore, without leaving regrets behind him that M. de Montrond suddenly escaped from this last dwelling-lace, July 12, 1812.  He passed over into England, where he remained till 1814.  On returning from Elba, the Emperor, knowing him to be Talleyrand's 'damned soul,' entrusted to him that mysterious mission to Vienna which is still but half understood.  There he failed brilliantly.  M. de Montrond's end was worthy of his early days.  A guest at the Prince of Benevento's table, this high patronage opened many doors to him.  He does not seem to have had any desire to induce Pauline's to open for him again. 'He was received everywhere, but without much respect,' writes Mme. Gabrielle Delessert, nee Laborde, of him on the back of a pastel she made of him in 1832. after Talleyrand's death, being without resources, he opened a secret gambling-hell.  The police shut their eyes, which allowed him to died (Oct. 18, 1843) without having become acquainted with the hard measure meted out by the Tribunal for misdemeanours."  (Pauline Bonaparte and Her Lovers: 152-157). [Ref1: Le Beau Montrond]

Secretary of Camillo Borghese.
French writer
"If the Emperor thought nothing of the attentions paid to Pauline by Marie-Louise's uncle, the Prince of Wurzburg, if he shut his eyes to the undoubted intrigue with Maxime de Villemarest, Borghese's secretary, and subsequently hact-writer-reviser to the publisher Ladvocat, it was not the same with regard to M. Jules de Canouville who, somewhere about 1810, made the utmost of one of the Princess's amorous caprices. . . ."  (Pauline Bonaparte and Her Lovers: 157-158)

5) Conrad Friedrich.
German Lieutenant.
Lover between 1808 & 1812.
"One of her conquests around this time was Conrad Friedrich, an impressionably young German-born lieutenant on a temporary mission to Paris to request reinforcements for Napoleon's occupying army in Italy.  He visited Pauline in Neuilly in the hopes that she might influence her brother to secure the necessary troops.  On their first meeting, Pauline and Friedrich enjoyed an idyllic walk in her gardens, and while she insisted to Friedrich that she had no special power over the emperor, she invited him to return the following day---for an assignation."  (Royal Pains: A Rogues' Gallery of Brats, Brutes and Bad Seeds: n.p.)

"One such was a young German lieutenant named Conrad Friedrich, who had formed part of the army of occupation that Napoleon sent to Rome to arrest the pope and annex the Papal States to France.  The lieutenant, in Paris to beg reinforcements and the rank of marshal for his commanding officer in Rome, went to Neuilly to inquire if the princess would use her influence with her brother to secure his objectives, and he caught Pauline's fancy.  Though she smiled and said she had no influence with the emperor, she asked Friedrich to walk a little with her in the gardens, and murmured to her lady that 'for a German' the lieutenant had a good air.  It finished with her making a rendezvous with him for the following afternoon at a grotto on the grounds." (Venus of Empire: The Life of Pauline Bonaparte: n.p.)
Denis Decres
Duc de Saint-Germain
French admiral & minister of the Navy:
"On her return from Hayti did Pauline find Semonville, MacDonald, and Montholon still in Paris?  Did she resume her former relations with them? Information on these points is somewhat scanty.  If we are to believe Semonville's confidences, the answer is---Yes.  It is possible.  'La diva Paolina' never turned a wholly deaf ear to a tender 'Don't say good-bye.'  In any case, she welcomed back one admirer and one lover.  The admirer was by no means unworthy of her:  this was Denis De Cres, the admiral, Minister of Marine.  She certainly encouraged him, for she almost sent him off his head.  'He very nearly got thin in consequence,' remarks M. Masson incidentally.  It was not Pauline, however, who profited by the admiral's improved figure, but Rosine de Saint-Joseph, whom he married at Paris, November 15, 1813.  If Pauline ever had any regrets at having used her heedless, fascinating ways to make game of De Cres, she might have consoled herself with the thought that she had escaped a second, and speedy, widowhood.  In 1813 the admiral had only seven years to live."  (Pauline Bonaparte and Her Lovers: 103-105)

7) Doctor Peyre.
"And, in truth, it was a curious life that went on at M. Vinaille's villa facing the sea, where the Princess had taken up her quarters with her household.  Its personnel took the greatest liberties and indulged in the most extraordinary etiquette.  Not one of them but combined the most diverse duties.  Thus Pauline's physician-in-ordinary, Doctor Peyre, who also passed for one of her lovers, undertook, in addition to his medical functions, those of steward to the Household.  He was a kind of a maitre Jacgues, standing fiercely on guard in front of the cash-box. . . . ."  (Pauline Bonaparte and Her Lovers: 187)
Marshal Macdonald
8) Etienne-Jacques MacDonald1st Duca di TAranto (1765-1840)
French marshal & military leader.
Son ofNeil MacFachen
"...The Duchesse d'Abrantes declares General Etienne-Jacques Macdonald, who had fought against the Russians under Suvarov and was now governor of Versailles, to be a third lover."  (Fraser, 2012, n.p.)

9) Felice Blangini (1781-1841)
"During her stay at Nice, Pauline took as her lover a young musician from Turin, Felice Blangini, who played violin in an orchestra in Paris, and who was almost more supine than Madame de Chamboudoin and the other ladies.  Blangini had originally attracted the attention of Pauline's sister Caroline Murat with some Italian nocturnes and romances that he composed while in Paris.  Pauline then offered him the post of chef d'orchestre at 750 francs a month, although she had no orchestra.  Now she called him to Nice, ostensibly so that she could study duets with him,... And indeed study they did...."  (Fraser, 2010, p. 161)

10) Francois-Joseph Talma (1763-1826)
French actor
Lover in 1812.
Husband of:
1. Julie Carreau, French dancer, mar 1791, div 1802
2) Charlotte VanhoveFrench actress, mar 1802.
" . . . In 1812, he had a love affair with Princess Pauline Bonaparte (1780-1825). . . ."  (Napoleonic Society)

"Three of these liaisons became known.  Nobody has ever suspected the fourth, the hero of which was the tragedian Talma.  And now, suddenly, we come upon a dusty bundle which has lain forgotten in a garret, from which falls a packet of letters which enlightens us as to this new adventure of Pauline's.  To tell the truth, some contemporaries had guessed as much; some, indeed, knew, and knew full details; but they were discreet.  Talma's wife, in a book about her husband, is the only one to drop a hint concerning the romance which to-day is placed beyond doubt.  'Talma became a lucky man all of a sudden,' she writes. 'Being pursued by women of the highest position, challenged by tjem, in fact, the idea occurred to him of achieving celebrity in this direction, damaging as that is to domestic happiness.'  Furthermore, a letter from Talma himself, addressed to his brother-in-law Ducis, allows us to guess what gossip was saying at Paris concerning his liaison with Princess Borghese.  Writing from Lyons, August 2, 1812, he enquires, 'What are people saying at Paris?  Any scandal-mongering?  For myself, I don't suppose anybody is making any remarks, and I expect that the absence from Paris of the two persons, one in one direction, one in another (nominally), will have caused all comment to cease.  My wife has been writing to me on this subject, and makes out that it is still being discussed, but that I don't believe.'  At this period Talma was by no means a conquest to be ashamed of.  If Pauline could have owned to having a lover, he would have been the one.  He had by now reached the zenith of his great reputation as a tragedian, victor in the struggles which he had had to wage against his comrades at the Comedie in days gone by, at the dawn of the Revolution. . .  It was nearly three months that this liaison lasted at Aix between the Imperial Princess and him who at this period remained the last hope of the tragedy to which his genius had imparted fresh life."  (Pauline Bonaparte and Her Lovers: 203-209)

11) Giovanni Pacini (1796-1867)
"...A young musician, Giovanni Pacini, encountered in the winter season at the Teatro della Valle, had reawakened in her the lust that had lain dormant during these years of exile...."  (Fraser, 2012, n.p.)

" . . . Napoleon's death shattered Pauline's nerves, while her vanity and pride were damaged beyond repair by her last lover, a young composer, Giovanni Pacini.  Flattered at first, the young man soon found her possessive, tiresome, and alas, old.  She also, the lifelong invalid, became eventually a truly sick woman. . . . "  (A Traveller in Rome:n.p.)

12) Hugh Fortescue2nd Earl Fortescue (1783-1861)
British politician
a.k.a. Viscount Ebrington.
Son ofHugh, 1st Earl Fortescue & Hester Grenville
Husband of:.
1. Lady Susan Ryder, daughter of Dudley Ryder, 1st Earl of Harrowby, mar 18172. Elizabeth Geale, mar 1841
"...Earl Fortescue, of an ancient noble house, and in his youth a very handsome man, and reputed to have been a favored lover of Pauline Bonaparte, wore a dark blue coat, with spangle buttons,and the ribbon of the Garter over a white vest...." (Addams, 1890, p. 46)

13) Jacques Marquet, Baron de Montbreton de Norvins (1769-1854)
"...When Napoleon deputed Gerard Duroc, grand marshal of the Tuileries Palace, to find five chamberlains to carry out this task, Pauline's choice fell on Montbreton, her neighbor at Montgobert, brother of Leclerc's secretary and long-standing friend Norvins and, it was said, her lover when no else offered...." (Fraser, 2012, n.p.)
14) Jean-Andoche Junot, 1st Duc d'Abrantes.
"After Freron's dismissal, another sighing lover presents himself---Andoche Junot, the future Duc d'Abrantes. At this time he was the General's aide-de-camp, and, as for Pauline, 'he loved her passionately, deliriously.' Later, he admitted that it was not reciprocated. 'She never loved me,' he confessed to his wife somewhat pathetically. He made matrimonial overtures to Bonaparte, alleging he was going to inherit 20,000 francs upon his father's death. The General answered very wisely that Junot senior was not yet dead and that the net profit at present was nil, concluding, 'You have nothing, she has nothing; what is the total? Nothing.' And things went no further. It is curious that Junot subsequently became a member of a family which the General had, at one time, thoughts of marrying into---the Permonds. Bonaparte had, in fact, proposed to Mme. Permon that he should marry her; her son, Pauline; and her daughter, either Louis of Jerome. . . ." (Pauline and Her Lovers: 54-55)

15) Jean-Baptiste Cervoni (1768-?)
French general
 ". . . On her arrival at Aix the princess received the homage of all the old nobility military and parliamentary.  General Cervoni, a companion of her childhood, was received by her on the same cordial footing as of old, and maintained the same attitude himself so naively in fact, as one day to presume to sit down in a chair near her Imperial Highness while a numerous gathering of men and ladies remained standing.  One of the princess's chamberlain's (sic) considered the general's behaviour so improper that he termed it impertinent and indecent. . .  When this remark reached Cervoni. . ., it made him very angry. He is said to have marched up to the group of the princess's officials saying, 'Point out this wag to me so that I can give him a thorough good thrashing.' Cervoni added that the chamberlain took to his heels.  Cervoni went back to the princess, who was the first to laugh at the snub to her obsequious chamberlain; and to show how entirely she was on the general's side asked him to arrange a reception and a ball for her at his country-house near Marseilles.  Cervoni, when saying good-bye, added, 'I am going to get everything ready, but mind, no chamberlains. . . . "  (Fleischmann, 1914, p.12)

16) Jean-Francois Debelle (1767-1802)

French general & soldier
the Apollo of the French Army.
Son ofJean-Joseph Humbert & Catherine Rivat

17) Jean Lannes, 1st Duc de Montebello.

18) Jean-Joseph-Amable Humbert (1767-1823)
French soldier
"General Jean Joseph Amable Humbert is one of those larger than life characters thrown up b the French Revolution.  A passionate republican who lead a failed invasion of Ireland, a ladies' man who romanced Napoleon's sister, an aide to Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans, a would-be invader of Mexico, and an associate of the pirates Lafitte -- there are so many tales about Humbert that it's hard to separate fact from fiction. . .  Humbert was sent on the unsuccessful 1801 expedition to Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti) under General Victoire Leclerc to put down a slave revolt.  On the voyage across the Atlantic, Humbert was rumoured to have had an affair with Leclerc's wife, who was none other than Napoleon's sister, Pauline Bonaparte."  (Shannon Selin)

"...The city was a magnet for the beautiful people, the handsomest emigre being General Jean Robert Humbert, who had been in Leclerc's forces and then served as an escort for Leclerc's widow, the former Pauline Bonaparte, when she returned to France.  Because Napoleon suspected that Humbert was one more of Pauline's innumerable lovers, he made his disgust clear, and the general left for New Orleans and remained there for life."  (Cerami, 2004, p. 61)

" . . . Should we likewise include among their number general Jean Joseph Amable Humbert, Ponsard's 'Lion amoureux'? At the date of the Hayti expedition, Humbert was barely thirty-five years of age, having been born on August 26, 1767, in the Vosges, at Saint-Nabord-sur-Moselle.  He was a handsome libertine, rubicund and powerful; so much of a ladies's man as to have lost two posts for what he did on that account.  It was for libertinage that he was dismissed from the merchant's office at Nancy, where he was earning a modest living; for the same reason he was asked to leave the hat factory at Lyons, where he also worked.  Thereupon he enlists in the Lyons National Guard and, as soon as he had won his sergeant's stripes, resigns and comes back to live near Remiremont, making the round of the countryside, bartering, trafficking, employing his loquacity to facilitate dealings in rabbit-skins, which were his specialty.  But the taste for soldiering seized him again.  It was what he was meant for, to clank his sabre on the field of battle and in public-house, to strike terror into the hearts of battalions and mothers. . . .  At Rennes, accordingly . . . the red-haired giant with the broad shoulders (and proud of them), with his arms round the waists of Mlles. Ninette and Cassin, actresses at the local theatre. . .  After Fructidor 18, Humbert obtains a short holiday.  Then he sets out with the Legion des Francs and directs that descent on Ireland which has made him immortal, thanks to his cool audacity and patriotic gallantry. After seeing service in the Danube army, and also that of the coasts of Holland, he received a summons to take part in the expedition to Hayti.  Such was the man who is said to have been Pauline's lover during the voyage, not only on the way back, but also on the way there.  The actuality of these relations between them seems to be equally open to question in both cases.  A ship is a small house on such occasions, little secrecy being practicable when the passengers on board are mixing freely with one another.  That the possibility of Pauline having relations with Humbert on the outward voyage is clear, is undeniable; but that is a different thing from affirming that they happened.  It would be necessary first to postulate Leclerc being an imbecile or complaisant.  We can acquit him both of the ridicule implied by the first hypothesis, and of the insult implied by the second."  (Pauline Bonaparte and Her Lovers: 97-10)

19) Jean-Victor-Marie-Moreau.
French general

20) John Keats.
Portrait of Prince Jozef Poniatowski
by Josef Maria Grassi, 1810s
@ Royal Castle in Warsaw
21) Josef Antoni Poniatowski (1763-1813)
Marshal of the French Empire
Polish leader, minister of war & army chief
"The consensus was that among the bravest, f not most reckless, of Napoleon's soldiers were always the Poles.  Believing in Napoleon's promise to create a free Polish state, they performed spectacular feats of heroism.  The story of Joseph Poniatowski (1763-1813), nephew of Stanislas, the last king of Poland, came to represent this legendary Polish valiance.  Much of Poniatowski's life was spent moving in and out of high military posts. By 1788, he was aide-de-camp to Francis II of Austria, with whom he fought against the Turks.  Next, in 1792, under King Stanislas, he spearheaded the Polish army's drive against the Russian's in Ukraine.  after a brief retirement, he was appointed to the Polish provisional government as minister of war and governor of Warsaw under Prussia.  When Napoleon allied himself with the Poles and defeated Prussia in 1807, Poniatowski agreed to serve under the French as commander of the First Polish Legion.  Celebrated for recapturing Krakow from the Austrians, he was appointed minister of war in Napoleon's newly formed Grand Duchy of Warsaw.  Called by Napoleon to participate in the invasion of Russia, he commanded the Fifth Corps of the Imperial Army at Smolensk and was by Napoleon's side at Borodino.  In recognition of his services to the empire, Napoleon granted him the title of marshal of France.  At the battle of Leipzig in 1813 (also known as the Battle of the Nations, with Austria, Prussia, and Russia aligned against France), Napoleon's troops were routed.  Poniatowski and his Polish contingent covered the retreat, making certain the French could withdraw safely, but were pinned down between the enemy and the Elster River bridge.  Refusing to surrender, Poniatowski continued to fight after the bridge was destroyed.  Repeatedly wounded, he spurred his horse into the river but died before gaining the other shore.  This episode captured the imagination of French soldiers and civilians alike, inspiring Beranger to write his famous Poniatowski ballad."  (Franz Liszt, His Circle, and His Elusive Oratorio: 16-17)

"Pauline's energy in these years was prodigious, and the tales of her conquests legion, featuring, among others, the wasp-waisted Russian general Prince Alexander Tchernitcheff, emissary of the czar, and the Polish veteran general Josef Anton Poniatowski, who wore the Grand Eagle of the Legion d'Honneur and was still a spry lover at fifty. . . ." (Venus of the Empire: The Life of Pauline Bonaparte: n.p.)

22) Jules de Canouville (1785-1812)
French military officer
a.k.a. Armand-Jules-Elisabeth de Canouville de Raffetot, Armand-Jules de Canouville, One of the Army Dandies (by Marbot)
Lover in 1810.
Bedding a lover 5 years younger: "Shortly after her return to Paris, Pauline, now thirty years old, had taken a new lover, another soldier this time, Captain Armand-Jules Elisabeth de Canouville, five years younger than herself, aide-de-camp to Louis-Alexandre Berthier, prince de Wagram, the chief of staff of the Grande Armee.  Canouville appeared to be devoted to her...."  (Hibbert, 2010, n.p.).

Canouville's personal & family background: “Around the year 1810 gave the Princess Borghese their favor among many other admirers, especially an officer of the General Staff Berthier. His name was Armand Jules de Canouville and had a very pleasant appearance. He was 25 years old and of ancient nobility. He was reckless and careless. This pleased Pauline. For this, the young man was a meritorious officer, whom the emperor had been repeatedly awarded.  Jules and Paulette for a while really loved each other sincerely. Both did not in the least a secret of their connection that you could almost call it a marriage, for Canouville stayed stable at the beloved. There are over this romance the most delicious stories in circulation. . . .” (Aretz)
M. de Canouville
A dashing warrior, a noble swashbuckler, a consummate dandy: "But M. du Cormier and his coadjutors speedily found themselves relegated to oblivion, when Armand Jules Elisabeth de Canouville, major in the 16th Dragoons and aide-de-camp to Berthier, Prince de Neufchatel, appeared upon the scene.  Never was there a more dashing warrior, or one more calculated to captivate a great lady's heart.  For Armand Jules Elisabeth was no plebeian swashbuckler; he was a man of good family, of education, of refinement, as much at home in a ball-room as on the battlefield, in the boudoir as in the bivouac, an accomplished dancer, a maker of verses, a consummate dandy, one of the most distinguished of that band of aristocrats who perpetuated, in the midst of the democratic army of the Revolution, the gay and chivalrous traditions of the perfumed and bewigged warriors...."  (Williams, p. 189)

Canouville, one of the army dandies: " . . . M. Jules de Canouville . . . somewhere about 1810 made the utmost of one of the Princess's amorous caprices. Canouville was termed by Marbot, who knew him, 'one of the army dandies,' belonged to Berthier's famous general-staff, fit according to Thiebault, 'to rank as a harem equal to satisfying the whims of ten sultanas.' This same Thiebault adds that Napoleon's sisters made the most of them. 'People talked of nothing but Pauline's intrigues, writes Countess Potocka, 'and they certainly did provide material for lengthy discussion.' Canouville's bragging, moreover, was of great use in maintaining the interest. 'His intimate relations with her soon acquired a scandalous publicity. It is due to him to observe that Pauline co-operated actively in thie open declaration of these liaisons. She 'gave herself a free hand in the extent of her control over her favourites, and took a kind of prince in making her preferences public property.'" (Pauline Bonaparte & Her Lovers: 157-158)

Canouville died with Pauline's portrait on his body: ". . . The most conspicuous of her liaisons, coming to the knowledge of Napoleon, ended fatally for the young man who was the object of it.  M. Jules de Canouville was a young, courtly and dashing colonel of hussars, and soon became the favorite of the princess.  This he soon obtained, and to his heart's content. . . .  M. de Canouville behaved well and distinguished himself in action. He was accidentally killed by the discharge of a cannon after a battle which would have entitled him to promotion.  The portrait of Pauline, surrounded with diamonds, was found upon his person:  it was converted to Murat, who returned it to his sister-in-law."  (The Court of Napoleon: 201-202)

A locket of Pauline's picture: " . . . In Nice . . . she bedded . . . 25-year-old Colonel Armand Jules de Canouville, aide to Marshal Berthier, Napoleon's chief of staff.  Again her brother stepped in, posting Canouville to Danzig.  When he died in 1812 during the retreat from Moscow, a locket carrying her picture was found hanging around his neck.  She was inconsolable for days." (Cawthorne, 2011, n.p.)

23) Lieutenant de Brack.
Lover in 1812.
"In 1812 we find Pauline with four lovers!  Lieutenant de Brack, a brilliant soldier, who seems to have been well fitted to become an intimate acquaintance of the Princess's without any waste of time. . . , "  (Fleischmann, 1914, p. 202)

24) Louis-Achille-Hippolyte Tourteau de Septeuil (d.1841)
Aide-de-camp to Berthier
a.k.a. born Louis-Achille-Hippolyte Tourteau de Septeuil, Achille Tourteau de Septeuil.
Husband ofPauline-Zoe-Constance Le Roy de Mondreville, a friend of Pauline's
"While M. de Canouville was risking his life in the ambuscades of the Salamanca road, Pauline was giving prompt attention to the task of finding his successor. Said Beugnot of her in 1809: "She is rapidly running through all the pleasures which belong to her age, her beauty, and her fortunate independence.' M. de Canouville found this out by experience. Pauline had selected as his rival a comrade-in-arms, Captain Achille Tourteau de Septeuil, son of a former valet-de-chambre to Louis XVI. But the young man was in love, and his affection caused him to be so little of a courtier that he refused the august proposals; he was above dividing his attentions. Pauline's disappointment straightway sound, and found, a revenge. The War Minister sent M. de Septeuil to Spain to rejoin his regiment of dragoons. On the way he met M. de Canouville who had been sent to the Peninsula a second time. As they rode side by side, therefore, they personified the extremities of favour and disgrace. One had gone too far, the other not far enough. This campaign was fatal to M. de Septeuil. On May 5, 1811, as he was charging into the fray at Fuentes-de-Onoro at the head of his dragoons, a bullet from the enemy tore off his thigh, thus setting him free to return, a cripple and an invalid, to his virtuous love-affair, and to philosophize on the unjust and spiteful devices of the little blind god. . .  In spite of her manoeuvres round M. de Septeuil, she seems to nevertheless to have returned to Canouville at this date. . . ." (Pauline and Her Lovers: 162-163 )

25) Louis-Marie-Stanislas Freron (1754-1802)
French politician & journalist
Lover in 1795.
". . . Her beauty, which was already dazzling---for Pauline was forward for her age---attracted the notice and won the heart of Louis Stanislas Freron, the agent of the Terror at Marseilles, and the willing executor of the sanguinary decrees of the Convention.  Pauline reciprocated his passion, and upon the fall of Robespierre, their union was agreed upon. The correspondence of Pauline with Freron, which was published in Paris about the year 1830, indicates a precocity of sentiment and a depth of passion astonishing in a girl of fifteen years.  The marriage would have taken place, had not Napoleon been informed of the engagement---intelligence of which was communicated by Freron's wife, whom he had deserted for Pauline. . . . "  (The Court of Napoleon: 187)

Aftermath:  "That December, Napoleon gave orders for Pauline to quit Marseille (sic) and meet him at his army headquarters in Milan.  Freron was thus abandoned.  He eventually wed his mistress and after a brief second act as commissioner in Saint-Domingue he slipped into poverty and obscurity, dying of yellow fever on the island in 1802."  (Carroll, 2011, n.p.) [Fam1] [Fam2]
a.k.a. Louis-Auguste, Comte de Forbin
French painter
"A French Painter, he was a pupil of David in Paris.  He lived in Rome from 1802-1805, accompanied by his friend Granet, also a painter.  An intimate friend of Pauline Bonaparte, he became a soldier, rising to the rank of Colonel, but retired to Italy again after Wagram.  He was an admirer from 1813-1815 of Madame Recamier, whom he met in Rome.  He became Director of the Louvre under the Restoration, and travelled to the Orient 1817-1818."  (Francois de Chateaubriand: Memores d'outre-tomb: Index)

"...Pauline later found what she wanted in a mightily endowed thirty-year-old painter, Louis Philippe Auguste de Forbin, with whom she copulated endlessly at the expense of her health...."  (Hamilton, 2003, p. 81)

"Pauline, however, managed to bounce from one extreme to the other. Back in Paris, she fell for Louis Philippe Auguste de Forbin, a society painter. He was reportedly hugely well endowed and Pauline could not get enough of hi; but his size caused her acute vaginal distress. A doctor was called in, who found the poor girl on the verge of exhaustion. Her uterus was swollen by constant excitement and her vagina was showing signs of damage due to friction. For the sake of Pauline's health, Forbin was persuaded to join the army and was posted out of harm's way." (Sex Lives of the Great Dictators: 9)

First encounter and short romance:  " . . . (H)e was in the pink of his twenty-seven years when he met Pauline at Plombieres, in 1806.  At that date he had not yet attracted the notice of the public by means of literary and artistic qualities out of common. . . He found favour directly, no niggardly favour either; on October 5 following he was appointed chamberlain to the Princess. . .  From start to finish this romance was not a lengthy one; it barely lasted out the year. Whether it was deception, or whether it was weariness, no one knows, but M. de Forbin did get out of hand---if we may drop into the metaphor once more. Souvenirs of this one of Pauline's adventures only survive in the shape of one love-letter, so far as he was concerned, and, in her case, debts; for 'Forbin proved expensive.' . . . ." (Pauline Bonaparte and Her Lovers: 166-168)

27) Pierre Boyer (1772-1851)
French general

28) Pierre de RuelMarquis de Beurnonville.
" . . . The implication is that 'Ajax' was Pauline's lover and de Montaigu an aspiring admirer.  As Laure offers an identity for 'Ajax'---General Pierre de Ruel, later Marquis de Beurnonville---we can add from army records and other sources that this soldier was in his late forties and had...recently been inspector of infantry with Leclerc in the Army England.  She declares that Pauline was dividing her favors between Beurnonville and General Moreau...."  (Fraser, 2012, n.p.)

29) Pierre Lafon (1773-1846)
French actor.
a.k.a. Pierre Rapenouille, Lafon of the French, le Beau Lafon
Lover in 1796.
" . . . Lafon, the brilliant young tragedian of the Comedie Fraicaise, was one of her first lovers.  This connection became public then, and has become historical since."  (The Court of Napoleon: 188)

"When her husband Leclerc was given command of the army sent to defeat Toussaint l'Ouverture in Haiti, Pauline was brokenhearted, for it meant saying farewell to her latest lover, Pierre Lafon, an actor at the Comedie Francaise...." (McLynn, 2011, n.p.).

"As for the lover, if he had the best of it, so far as personal appearances went, he was not quite such a success.  He was Mr. Pierre Rapenouille, known as Lafon, actor at the Comedie Francaise, who played romantic 'heroes' and ended by aspiring to transfer to real life the adventures in which he took part on the stage in the evenings.  He 'shone to as great advantage on the stage as in society,' says a Consulate pamphlet of him, although the same author denies him even physical charm. While admitting he was tall, he reproaches him with having doctored his slender figure; and as for his head, says that it was totally lacking in nobility of character.  But the ladies thought exactly the reverse.  'He may be termed a pretty man,' said Mlle. George, who was, it is true, very fond of him; 'his features were very delicate, nose slightly tip-tilted, small black eyes but very keen and brilliant; immaculately elegant, an excellent voice, excellent, too at making love, at tears, at enthusiasm; his fervency most contagious, his by-play most striking, but no depth and little 'composition'; like fireworks which dazzle and compel the most enthusiastic applause.'..." (Fleischmann, 2004, pp. 105-107)

First encounter:  "IN 1796, at Milan, Pauline married Gen. Charles Emmanuel Leclerc . . . Pauline neither assented to the alliance, nor did she reject it; she simply yielded to her brother's desire that it should be consummated, Professing, and doubtless feeling, the most complete indifference to her husband, she soon entered upon a career of intrigue and infidelity.  Lafon, the brilliant young tragedian of the Comedie Francaise, was one of her first lovers.
This connection became public then, and has become historical since." (Goodrich & Champagne, 1858, p.188)

30) Victor-Emmanuel Leclerc (1772-1802)
French army general
"Meanwhile, Pauline's star was on the ascent.  In Milan she met one of her brother's officers, Adjutant General Victor Emmanuel Leclerc, in his mid-twenties, dashing, chiseled, and nicknamed 'the blond Napoleon.' . . . On April 20, 1797, Leclerc and Pauline announced their intention to wed.  However, there is a bit more to the story than a sudden coup de foudre of attraction.  After Napoleon caught his sister with Leclerc in his study having ecstatic sex behind a screen, he determined that sooner Pauline got married, the better.  Leclerc had evidently loved Pauline from afar for three years.  But he was hardly marrying an heiress.  Her dowry was an unimpressive forty thousand francs.  They were also a pair of opposites: Leclerc was as serious as Pauline was vivacious, fondly referring to him as mon joli petit gamin---'my cute little imp.'"  (Royal Pains" A Rogues' Gallery of Brats, Brutes, and Bad Seeds: n.p.)

Leclerc's physical appearance:  "Physically Leclerc may have pleased Pauline. Appiani's fine portrait of him depicts a narrow bust, a high forehead, a delicate lip, well-shaped nose, eyes somewhat lifeless, but the general impression bears some resemblance to Bonaparte's, only fairer, more youthful, less serious.  'Small, slender, lean, with a figure slightly awry, pleasant and straightforward.' writes Desaix in his diary.  Norvins, Leclerc's secretary at Hayti, completes the picture: 'General Leclerc was short but well made, and he combined strength with gracefulness; his features were attractive, his glance keen and quick, his face always lit up by expression and movement.  He was a fluent speaker.'  The foregoing well explains the phrase habitually used by Pauline in referring to him; she called her husband 'my little Leclerc.'"  (Pauline Bonaparte and Her Lovers: 60-61

Pauline's spouses & children:  She married 1) in 1796, Victor Emmanuel Leclerc; and 2) in 1803, Camilo Borghese, " attractive, dark-haired, empty-headed, elegant Italian who owned one of the world's biggest diamond collections and countless properties, including the art-laden Villa Borghese in Rome...."  (Wallace, et. al., 2008, p. 311)

Pauline Bonaparte Gallery.
Portrait of Pauline Bonaparte, Princesse Borghese
by Robert Lefevre, 1809
Courtesy of Museis
Pauline Bonaparte
From a lithograph of about 1840

Napoleonic Marshals & Generals.
French aristocrat & military officer.
4th Duke of Wagram, 4th Prince of Wagram
a.k.a. Alexandre Berthier, Louis Berthier, Captain Berthier.
Son ofLouis-Philippe-Marie-Alexandre Berthier3rd Prince de Wagram & Baroness Bertha Clara von Rothschild.

His lover was:
Marie-Louise Salivas (1914-2000)
a.k.a. Madame Welson.
Lover in 1906.
Natural offspring1. Louise-Monique-Alexandra Berthier, a.k.a. Monique Welson
Legitimized 1925.
Andre Massena,
Duca di Rivoli
Prinz von Essling
Andre Massena1st Duca di Rivoli (1758-1815)
1st Duca di Rivoli, 1st Prinz von Essling.
Brigadier-General 1793
a.k.a. the Greatest Name of My Military Empire (by Napoleon), the Wiliest of Italians.
Husband ofMarie Rosalie Lamarre, daughter of a surgeon.

His lovers waere
1) Henriette Lemberton.
"...On April 17, 1810 he gave the command of the Army of Portugal to one of his most able marshals, Andre Massena, Duke of Rivoli and Prince of Essling.  Massena was no longer young -- he was 55 in 1810 -- but he was a professional soldier, having served in the Royal Army in his youth.  He became a successful smuggler, before resuming his military career in 1794, when he continued to increase his fortune... He was also fond of women; his current mistress, the sister of a member of his Staff, accompanied him in Spain, wearing the uniform of a hussar.  Her presence was perhaps some compensation for an assignment which he had not sought, and thoroughly detested...."  (Neillands, 1994, p. 103)

"...He had a reputation as an incorrigible collector of loot, and that in an army of looters.  His current mistress, Henriette Lemberton, accompanied him to Spain, irritating the headquarters staff by always appearing dressed in the uniform of an officer of light cavalry...."  (Corrigan, 2006, p. 159)

2. Sylvia Cepolini.
"At fifty-two, Massena was therefore a very senior marshal as well as a remarkable character. His mistress Silvia Cepolini having brought him luck on the Italian campaign, he took another, Henriette Lebreton, out with him to the Peninsila. There is a debate among historians as to whether she wore the uniform of a dragoon or a hussar, but she was the wife of a captain on Massena's staff and the sister of one of Massena's former mistresses." (Napoleon and Wellington: The Battle of Waterloo: 71)

Etienne-Jacques MacDonaldDuca di Taranto(1785-1840).
French military officer.
a.k.a. Etienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre MacDonald, Duca di Taranto.

His lover was:
Pauline Bonaparte
"Perhaps Napoleon's distrust of this dogged half-Scotsman did have a personal element, for Macdonald had lately acquired a considerable reputation as a lover. His most celebrated mistress was Pauline, prettiest and wittiest of the Bonaparte clan... She apparently devoted the maximum time to Macdonald for they are reported to have locked themselves up at St. Leu for three days, a supply of food having been sent in in advance.  Napoleon loathed scandals that involved members of his family and he was extremely angry when he heard about this romantic weekend.  He did not wholly forgive the future marshal until he hand him his baton on the field of Wagram, in 1809."  (Delderfield, 2002, p. 69)
Jean-Andoche Junot, 1st Duc d'Abrantes
Jean-Andoche Junot, 1st Duc d'Abrantes (1771-1813)
a.k.a. General Andoche Junot.
Husband of Laure Junot, Duchesse d'Abrantes (1784-1838) mar 1800, daughter of Charles Martin de Permond & Panoria.
a.k.a. Laure de Saint-Martin-Permon, Duchesse d'Abrantes, Laure Martin de Permond, Laure Permon.

" . . . Descended through her mother from the Imperial family of the Comneni. Born at Montpelier, she married General Junot on his return from Egypt, followed him on his campaigns, studied and observed much, and on her husband's death in 1813 devoted herself to the education of her children.  She wrote several novels more suited for the circulating library than for seious reading."  (Memoirs of the Duchesse de Dino: 291)

His lovers were:

1) Costanza Fagnani Brusati, Marchesa Fagnani.
2) Juliana de Almeida e Oyenhausen.
3) Pauline Bonaparte

The Duchesse d'Abrantes's lovers.
French novelist and playwright

Lover in 1828

2) Joseph Edgar Boehm.
3) Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859)
" . . . Metternich's simultaneous affair with Caroline Murat and Laure Junot was the best known of these scandal, for when the jealous Caroline tipped off Junot about his wife's infidelity, and Junot found the incriminating evidence Caroline had guided him to, he attacked his wife with scissors, leaving her half dead, tried to challenge Metternich to a duel and insisted that the Emperor declare war on Austria.  Readers of the scandal sheets particularly enjoyed the alleged riposte by Madame Metternich when Junot 'peached' to her:  'The role of Othello ill becomes you.'"  (Napoleon: A Biography: n.p.)

4) Leon de Madaillan-Lesparre, Comte de Lassay (1683-1750)
Husband of Reine de Madaillan

"He had a liaison with Louise-Francoise, Duchess de Bourbon, known as Mademoiselle de Nantes, the illegitimate daughter (b. 1673) of Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan, and wife of Louis de Bourbon (1668-1710), Prince de Conde who, she had married in 1685...."  (Busby, p. 140) [The Madaillan, Lords of Montataire]
"In the 1720s, Louise Francoise became the mistress of the marquis de Lassay.  In order to be closer to her, he built the Hotel de Lassay next to the Palais Bourbon, her residence in Paris.  Later on, a gallery was built, housing the grander, more public part of the collection of paintings that made Lassay's reputation as a connoisseur redound in Parisian circles for a generation after his death.  The gallery that joined the two buildings also enabled the lovers to have better access to each other."  (Wikipedia)

5) Lucien Bonaparte1st Principe di Canino.

6) Maurice de Balincourt, Marquis de Balincourt (1789-1864)
"...Unwilling to join her husband in this unfashionable and distant outpost of the French Empire, far from the salons of Paris and her new young lover Maurice de Balincourt, Laure Junot remained in France along with the Junots' children." (Martin, 2011, p. 62)

"...Napoleon arranged her marriage in 18-- to his aide-de-camp, Andoche Junot.  The marriage was unhappy and the Duchess had various lovers including Metternich, the Austrian ambassador.  Angered by her infidelities and her continuing relationships with emigres, Napoleon ordered her to leave Paris in 1813 after the death of her husband; after the fall of the Empire she was obliged to stay in exile in Rome.  Many years later, she eventually returned to Paris, where she wrote entertaining, but often incorrect and malicious memoirs." (Somerville, 2010, p. 303)

Jean-Baptiste Cervoni (1765-1809).
French general.
His lovers were:
". . . Corporal Cervoni, however, with whose name hers is coupled, is not mythological; this is Jean-Baptiste Cervoni, born 1768, 'a man of merit, brave and honourable, albeit a Corsican,' says Barras concerning him.  It was this same Cervoni who was the first to reconnoitre in Toulon, after its recapture, at the head of 200 men.  He was killed on the field of battle at Eckmuhl.  The list of Pauline's lovers is long enough for there to be no need to lengthen it by adding the name of Cervoni who had les brilliant adventures in love-affairs and in barracks."  (Fleischmann, 1914, p. 12)

2) Victoire Oeben.
Military record: "A friend of the Bonaparte family. Soldier in the Royal Corsican regiment from 1783 to 1786. Colonel of the National Guard for his district in 1790, then second lieutenant in the 22nd cavalry and ADC to his compatriot, General Casablanca. Cervoni was promoted adjutant general chef de bataillon and de brigade before Toulon where he was military agent with the Representatives of the People (with Saliceti, no doubt), on 26 October and 20 December 1793. He became general of brigade on 14 January 1794 (confirmed on 24 December 1795) and general of division on 15 February 1798. After having exercised various territorial commands, he resumed active service as chief of staff of the 2nd corps of the Army of Germany (Marshal Lannes), and was killed, his head taken off by a cannon ball, at the beginning of the campaign at Eckmühl ... He had been wounded in the right leg in Italy on 1 June 1793, and in the thigh and the right arm at Toulon. On 14 June 1804, he had been named commander of the Legion of Honour. General Cervoni's name is inscribed on the Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoile, on the eastern side." Bouvier, F. Bonaparte en Italie, 1796, 1899, p. 652-3."  (History Data[Ref1:Napoleon Monuments] [Ref2:11:Gedo]

Jean-Francois Debelle (1767-1802).
a.k.a. Jean-Francois-Joseph Debelle, the Apollo of the Army.
French general & soldier.
His lover was:

Marshal of France.His lover was:
Pauline Bonaparte.
"Bonaparte brought him from the Army of Italy where he was a general of brigade and where he established his reputation for courage and leadership. Made a General of Division for the invasion of the Holy Land, and subsequently becomes known as the 'Roland of the Army.'  He became a Marshal of France and Duke of Montebello."  (Lewis,n.d., , n.p.)

Jean-Robert Humbert (1767-1823).
His lover was:
Pauline Bonaparte.
"...The city was a magnet for the beautiful people, the handsomest emigre being General Jean Robert Humbert, who had been in Leclerc's forces and then served as an escort for Leclerc's widow, the former Pauline Bonaparte, when she returned to France.  Because Napoleon suspected that Humbert was one more of Pauline's innumerable lovers, he made his disgust clear, and the general left for New Orleans and remained there for life." (Cerami, 2004, p. 61)

Louis-Alexandre Berthier1st Prince de Wagram (1753-1815).
1st Duc de Valangin, 1st Sovereign Prince of Neuchatel 1806, Prince of Wagram 1809
Vice-Constable of the Empire 1807, Marshal of France 1804, Senator 1804, Grand Master of the Palace 1804.
His lovers were:
1) Giuseppina Visconti.
a.k.a. Madame Visconti.
Italian courtesan
"Berthier formed another and more romantic attachment during the halcyon days of this campaign.  When the French made a triumphant entry into Milan two of the most celebrated women in Northern Italy hurried to greet the,, Grassini famous for her lovely voice, and Madame de Visconti, famous for her beauty.  Both tried very hard to seduce the conqueror and both failed on account of Napoleon's attachment to his bride, Josephine. Grassini bided her time and a disillusioned Napoleon soothed her pride three years later.  Visconti took second-best.  She had noticed that Chief-of-Staff Berthier had fallen deeply in love with her at first sight and she became his mistress.  The affair lasted so long that it became a standing joke in the years ahead...."  (Delderfield, 2002, p. 37)

" . . . Napoleon tricked him into marrying Princess Elisabeth-Marie, niece of King Maximilian of Bavaria, and abandoning his beloved Madame Giuseppina Visconti. . . ."  (Napoleon: A Biographical Companion: 25)

2) Marie-Augustine Debee.

Michel Ney
by Adolphe Brune, 1792
Michel Ney, 1st Duc d'Elchingen
Michel Ney, 1st Duc d'Elchingen (1769-1815).
French soldier and military commander.
Colonel in the Grand Armee (1794), Brigadier-General (1796), Lieutenant-General (1799), Major-General (1799), Commander-in-Chief of the Army, Inspector-General of the Cavalry (1801), Ambassador to the Swiss Republic (1802), Marshal of the Empire (1804, 1st Duc d'Elchingen (1808, Prince of Borodino (1812); 1st Prince de la Moskowa (1813)
a.k.a. Marshal Ney, le Rougeaud (the Red-faced or Ruddy), le Brave des Braves (the Bravest of the Brave), l'Infatigable (the Indefatigable), le Lion Rouge (the Red Lion).

His lover was:
Maria Versfelt (1776-1845)
a.k.a. Maria Johanna Elselina Verfelt, Ida Saint-Elme, Elzelina av Aylde Jonghe, La Contemporaine.

References:  [Bio1:Wikipedia] [Bio2:NNDB] [Bio3:Napoleon Series] [Ref1:Arwen] [Ref2:Executed Today]
Louise Aglae Auguie Ney                                    First Duchess d’Elchingen                                      Princess de la Moskowa                             (March 24, 1782 – March 24, 2015)                                     Happy 233rd birthday!:
Aglae, Duchesse d'Elchingen
Aglae NeyDuchesse d'Elchingen (1782-1854)
French aristocrat.
Lady-in-waiting to Empress Josephine 1802-1804 & Empress Marie-Louise 1810-1814
a.k.a. born Aglae-Louise Auguie, Aglae-Louise Auguie de Lascans, Aglae-Louise Auguier, Aglae-Louise Ney.
Daughter ofPierre-Cesar Augui, French aristocrat & Adelaide-Henriette Genet, Lady-in-waiting to Marie-Antoinette
Wife ofMichel Ney (1769-1815), 1st Duc d'Elchingen, 1st Prince de la Moskowa, mar 1802.

Aglae Ney's personal & family background
". . . Aglae Louise Ney, nee Auguie . . . was born on 24 March 1782 in Paris as a daughter of French aristocrat Pierre-Cesar Auguie and Adelaide-Henriette Genet, lady-in-waiting of Queen Marie-Antoinette.  After the suicide of her mother in the days of the Great Terror she was adopted by her maternal aunt, (the) famous Mme. Campan.  The latter introduced (the) young girl into new high society, and Aglae became (a) close friend of Napoleon Bonaparte's wife Josephine who promoted her marriage with Michel Ney, (the) celebrated Napoleonic general and from 1804 Marshal of France. . .  Mme. Ney outlived her husband for almost 40 years. . . ."  (Boris Wilnitsky, Fine Arts)

Her lover was:
Michael Bruce.
"Aglae Ney was the beautiful wife of the 'bravest of the brave' Michel Ney, Prince of Borodino and Moskowa. She was falling in love with a young Englishman called Michael Bruce who in turn was being pursued by the wild young Caroline Lamb! Within two years the Duke was due to have acute problems with the Ney family. . . ." (Wellington the Beau: 73)
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