Saturday, August 15, 2020

Russian Princesses--


Yekaterina Skavronskaya
Princess Bagration
Russian aristocrat, political salonniere & diplomatic figure.

Also known as:

Catherine Bagration
Ekaterina Pavlona Skavronska
Katharina, Princess Bagration
Katharina Pavlovna Bagration

Daughter of: Count Pavel Martinivich Skavronsky, Chamberlain of the Royal Court & Minister Plenipotentiary to Naples & Yekaterina von Engelhardt, Maid of Honour to Empress Maria.

Princess Bagration's physical appearance and personal traits.
"Skavronskaya's daughter, also Ekaterina, became a European scandal.  Known as the 'Naked Angel' because of her fondness for wearing veil-like, transparent dresses and 'le Chat Blanc'--the 'White Pussycat'--for her sensual avidity... Like her mother, who was Potemkin's 'angel', her face had a seraphic sweetness, her skin was alabaster, her eyes were a startling blue and her hair was a cascade of golden locks.

The beautiful naked angel
".  . . . With the Duchess of Sagan hosting her fashionable salon on its second floor, there was another woman, in a parallel wing, just as intelligent, witty, rich, beautiful, and it must be said, controversial. This was Princess Catherine Bagration, the thirty-one-year-old widow of Pyotr Ivanovich Bagration, a Russian general and war hero who had fallen at Borodino. She was blonde with light blue eyes and pinkish white skin that one admirer compared to alabaster. Her scandalous evening gown, very low cut, earned her the nickname 'the beautiful naked angel.'" (Vienna, 1814: 32)

Princess Bagration's personal & family background:  "Katharina Shakvronska was the daughter of the Latvian peer, Count Pavel Shavronksi, and was the great-niece of Prince Potemkin, the powerful favourite of Catherine the Great. Her family were closely related to the empress Catherine I (1727 – 1727), the widow of Peter the Great. Educated at the court of Catherine II and Maria Feodorovna, she was married firstly (1800) to Prince Peter Bagration (1765 – 1814)."  (A Bit of History)

A prominent figure in European society life: "It was Blome's maternal grandmother, Ekaterina Pavlovna Skavronskaya (1783-1857), Princess Bagration, who above all gave a decisive turn to his diplomatic career. She was a prominent figure in European society life and had an eventful life. She was related on her father's side to the Russian Empress Catherine I, and on her mother's side she was a cousin of Grigory Potemkin, the lover and adviser of Catherine II. At a young age she became lady-in-waiting to Empress Maria Fyodorovna, the wife of Paul I. In 1800 she was obliged to marry Major-General Pyotr Bagration (1765-1812), who came from a princely Georgian family and was at that time making a meteoric advance in the Russian army. He was a true fighting general, recklessly brave, a man of a volcanic temper and a warm heart who was idolized by his officers and men. He fell out of favour with the Tsar and joined a circle of conspirators who assassinated him in March 1802. In the meantime, Bagration had sent his young wife to safety in Dresden, the capital of the principality of Saxony. This Baroque city, known as the Florence of Germany, had after the French Revolution become a privileged sanctuary for gallant Polish and French aristocracy and the scene of a busy salon life. Ekaterina Skavronskaya, a ravishing beauty, quickly became a figure of note in that milieu. She would never return to Russia where her husband, under the new Tsar Alexander I, had a brilliant military career and would distinguish himself in the successive wars against Napoleon." (The Struggle with Leviathan: Social Responses to the Omnipotence of the State, 1815-1965: 33)
Pyotr Bagration
Wife of:
1. Prince Pyotr Bagration(1765-1812) mar 1800, sep 1805.

"This is what General Louis Alexandre Andrault de Langéron had to say about this union : 'Bagration married the young niece of the great Prince Potemkin. This rich and lustrous partner did not suit him. Bagration was a mere soldier, with the tone and manners of one, and he was extremely ugly. His wife was as white as he was black, and she was as beautiful as an angel, bright, the liveliest of the beauties of St. Petersburg; she would not be happy with such a husband for long...'." (Wikipedia)

Prince Bagration's physical appearance & personal qualities.
"Being of average height, thin, with wavy brunette hair, Bagration had the typical Georgian hooked nose that gave way to a number of witticisms and jokes. . . He wasn't handsome, but the glory and reputation of Suvorov's disciple made a strong impression.  Soldiers called him 'The Eagle,' while among the general population he was known as 'Bog-rati-on ('Bog [the god]-rati [army]-on [he is]' -- The God of the Army."  (Russiapedia)

Prince Bagration's personal & family background.
"Bagration descended from an ancient Georgian royal dynasty of Bagrations (Bagrationi in Georgian) coming from the Tao-Klarjeti region in the south-west Georgia.  The Bagrationi actually governed Georgia for almost 900 years.  Among Peter's ancestors one could find many monarchs and prominent statesmen." (Russiapedia)
John Hobart Caradoc
1st Baron Howden
2. John Hobart Caradoc1st Baron Howden (1799-1873) mar 1830, sep 1849

"Here, again, we meet with this Major Caradoc, the future Lord Howden, the lover and afterwards the husband of Princess Bagration, who was just then choosing Paris as the scene of his amorous exploits. His position as diplomatic attache procured him from time to time a few diplomatic missions; but his social successes were far greater than were his military or statesmanlike gifts. He was frequently to be seen at Lady Blessington's. He was a handsome young fellow, clever, and a decided fop; 'a great man of fashion,' as Castellane tells us, 'a sort of dandy, but a very decent sort of fellow.' And Lady Granville adds, the day after one of her receptions: 'Caradoc is a great card in my game. There are about six of them in love with him.' It would appear that the gallant Major did not show himself insensible to the attractions of the beautiful Duchess de Guiche, and paid her his court in such a manner as to draw down unpleasantness upon himself. 'The Duchesse de Guiche,' goes on Lady Granville, 'has broken a small blood-vessel, and does not stir out.  It is said that the Major (Caradoc) has been all but forbidden the house, and certainly he never seems to go there from hence with drums and flourish of trumpets as he used to do when the clock struck ten.  His own excellent taste and judgment have led him to select Princess Bagration as his consolation.' And a few das later: 'Madame de Guiche re-appeared yesterday. The Major stayed away, which 'intrigued' the world very much. Some think he has had a quarrel with Bagration, others that an encounter with the rival queens would have been too much for his nerves.'" (Eminent English Men and Women in Paris: 244-245)

Her lovers were:
Lover in 1814.
" . . . September 25 (1814):  Alexander arrives in the Austrian capital for Congress of Vienna, where he has a liaison with Princess Bagration. . . ." (Alexander of Russia: Napoleon's Conqueror: 319)

"There was much sexual congress at the Congress: when the Duke of Wellington arrived, he brought a notorious French-Italian actress- courtesan as his companion. Vienna's two female stars lived at the top of the staircase of the Palm Palace: on one side lived the aforementioned rich, powerful Wilhelmina de Sagan, who, moaned Metternich, 'sinned several times a day' and slept with everyone important. Across the corridor was another astonishingly promiscuous adventuress, Princess Catherine Bagration, who was the great-niece of Prince Potemkin, Catherine the Great's fabulous partner, and widow of the war hero Prince Bagration, killed at the Battle of Borodino. Known as the 'White Pussycat' (alabaster skin, blue eyes) or the 'Naked Angel' (due to her taste for seethrough dresses), Princess Bagration, who had a child by Metternich, was sluttish even by the standards of the Congress. All Vienna watched in fascination: both women slept with Alexander." (Daily Mail)

The 'Naked Angel' became the Tsar's favourite: "In every way, the nobility of Europe came to Vienna to reclaim and reassert their ancient rights and privileges, including the right to do as they pleased. The art of excess reached perhaps unprecedented heights. In his free hours, Great Liberator Alexander turned out to be a heroic womanizer. Of the endless stories of trysting during the congress, one address can stand for all. In town there was a palace with two staircases leading to separate apartments that had been rented to two aristocratic visitors. The top of the left staircase was the domain of the Russian princess Katharine Bagration, whose lifestyle earned her the nickname 'the Naked Angel.' She established a virtual brothel for the aristocracy, with herself as open-armed proprietor. At one point a prince broke down a door in her flat to find his very young daughter in the arms of a Russian nobleman. . . At the congress, Bagration became the tsar's favorite, though neither was remotely faithful. Many nights police spies observed the tsar trudging up the left-hand staircase. Emperor Franz would chortle over the reports at breakfast the next morning. One police report ran, 'The porter rang four times to announce [the tsar], and the princess . . . came out on the staircase dressed in a neglige. She took Alexander into her boudoir. . . ." (Beethoven: Anguish and Triumph: 635)

Guardian angel comes to rescue naked angel: "Ekaterina Skavronskaya was a wealthy lady, but her lifestyle during the congress was so flamboyant that it almost ruined her and she even had to ask her cook for credit. Weighed down by astronomical debts, she was placed under house arrest in June 1815 by the Viennese city magistrate. However, she managed to escape from the city and fled to the Allied headquarters, hoping that her aristocratic friends would throw her a lifeline. Apparently, she succeeded, and in all likelihood it was Alexander I who helped her out of the emergency." (The Struggle with Leviathan: 37)
Charles Stewart Vane
3rd Marquess of Londonderry
"By the end of the Congress, Sagan and Bagration would fight over another lover, Sir Charles Stewart, brother and companion of Lord Castlereagh, leader of the British delegates. Bagration had been simultaneously having affairs with Stewart and the Crown Prince of Wurtemberg (sic), a game she thought most amusing. Bagration became so desperately in love with Wurtemberg that she neglected Stewart, losing him to rival Sagan. Ironically, Stewart was the bad boy of the Congress, constantly getting drunk, and even causing carriage accidents. He was almost as handsome as his brother and just as charming. Sagan enjoyed a long and frivolous affair with Stewart and must have delighted in spiting her rival." (La Plant, p. 7)

3) Friederich von der Schulenberg.
Klemenz Wenzel von Metternich

4) Klemenz Wenzel von Metternich.
Lover in 1801-1812.

"...At that time, both of them had been living in Dresden... Metternich was a young twenty-eight-year-old ambassador on his first diplomatic mission; Bagration, the beautiful nineteen-year-old wife of a much older Russian general, who was almost always somewhere else. By 1802, the princess had given birth to a daughter and boldly named her Clementine, after the man who almost certainly was the father, Klemens Metternich.  This extramarital affair did last long, but it had left its scars...." (King, 2009, p. 66).  

"...[T]he well-known Russian general, Prince Piotr Ivanovich Bagration (1765-1812)...had died at the famous battle of Borodino during Napoleon's Russian campaign. Twelve years earlier, Bagration had married, by order of Tsar Paul I, the Countess Ekaterina Pavlovna Skavronska (1783-1857), whose great-grandfather had been a brother of Tsarina Catherine I and who on her mother's side was a close relative of Prince Grigory Potemkin. There was a significant age difference between Bagration and Skavronska. When the former fell out of favour with Tsar Paul I, he sent his young wife for safety reasons to the royal Court of Saxony in Dresden. It was in this privileged place of refuge for courtly nobles, as yet untouched by the French Revolution, that she came to know the Austrian envoy, Klemens Metternich. It was the beginning of a long-lasting and passionate relationship. Ekaterina Skavronska was not only breathtakingly beautiful, but also very intelligent and deeply interested in politics...." (Becker, 2006, pp. 199-200)

"Highly intelligent, dark-haired and angelically beautiful, Princess Bagration became the mistress of the Austrian chancellor Prince Metternich (1801) and was the mother of his daughter Clementine Bagration (1802 – 1829), who was raised with his own legitimate daughters. This liasion lasted until 1812, when her husband was commanding Russia’s Second Army. Her rivalry with the Duchesse de Sagan, Metternich’s new mistress, was said to have afforded him much amusement. She was used by the Russian tsar, Alexander I as a spy against Austria, and was one of the most prominent society ladies present during the Congress of Vienna (1814), and she is frequently mentioned in the diplomatic correspondence of the period. The princess returned to Paris (1815) where she later remarried secondly (1830) to a British peer, John Hobart Caradoc, second Baron Howden (1799 – 1873), she being fifteen years his senior. They were later formally seperated (sic)." (A Bit of History)

Konstantin Pavlovich of Russia
"Bagration was a striking beauty with golden hair and a white, translucent complexion. She usually wore very low-cut clothes that earned her the epithet of 'the naked angel'. Count de la Garde Chambonas thought she combined oriental sensuality with Andalusian grace. But Bagration had more to offer than just her physical charms; she was extremely intelligent, with keen political insight, and above all the ear of the Tsar. Furthermore, she also granted favours to his brother, Grand Duke Constantine, as well as to several other princes. She finally entered into a more permanent (in her case, a relative term) relationship with Crown Prince Wilhelm of Wurttemberg, who later, on his marriage to Grand Duchess Ekaterina Pavlovna, would become the father of the future Queen Sophie of the Netherlands." (The Struggle with Leviathan: Social Responses to the Omnipotence of the State, 1815-1965: 36)
Ludwig I von Bayern
Ludwig Ferdinand von Preussen
by Jean-Laurent Mosnier, 1799
" . . .[S]he had just started a new romance with Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia, who ended his relationship with Princess Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich for her. The Prince soon died in the Battle of Saalfeld, and the princess returned once more to Vienna." (Wikipedia)

8) Count Stanislaw Potocki.
"In the same year she moved to Paris, where the secret police kept her luxurious mansion at number 45 Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré under surveillance. Informants hired to follow the princess constantly sent them reports. One informant wrote: 'This lady is very well known in high society due to her political influence and coquetry. On Monday night, quite late, two Poles left her, and one of them, Count Stanislas Potocki[8] returned. Such antics are frequent. .. the Duchess is very fickle.'" (Wikipedia)
Wilhelm I von Wurttemberg
"Another matter that had bothered the princess was the departure of a new lover she had taken, the Crown Prince of Wurttemberg.  She accompanied the handsome prince out of town, all the way to the first postal stop, Perkersdorf, where they said good-byes so tender that one police agent noted ironically it might lead to the birth of another 'illegitimate child for the virtuous princess.'"  (King, 2008)

Princess Yekaterina Bagration Gallery.
Yekaterina, Princess Bagration
by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1820

German Princesses--

Daisy, Princess of Pless
British society beauty

Also known as:
born Mary Theresa Olivia Cornwallis-West
Princess Daisy.

Daughter of
Col. William Cornwallis-West & Mary Adelaide Fitzpatrick.

Wife of
Hans Heinrich XV von Hochberg (1861-1938), Prince of Pless, Graf von Hochberg & Freiherr von Furstenstein, mar 1891, div 1922.

"Hans Heinrich was supposedly 'the richest prince in Germany' with an annual income of £200,000, the equivalent of over £6 million today, as well as the castles of Fürstenstein (with over 600 rooms), Pless, a palace in Berlin and a castle in Saxony, not to mention several smaller castles and houses and a work-force of 5,000 earning income for the Prince in his Silesian coalfields." (Princess Daisy of Pless: The Happy Years)
Dorothea von Lieven
Princesse von Lieven

German aristocrat, diplomat & salonniere.
Maid-of-honour to Empress Maria Feodorovna.
Patroness of Almack's Assembly Rooms.

Also known as:
Darja (her family)
Daria Khristoforovna Lieven
Dorothee de Benkendorf
Dorothea Lieven
Dorothea von Lieven, Princesse Lieven
Princess von Lieven
Dorothea von Benckendorff

Daughter ofChristoph Ivanovich von Benckendorff (1749-1823), Military governor of Livonia & Anna Juliane von Schelling Kanstatt (1746-1797), Lady-in-waiting to Empress Maria Feodorovna, mar 1779

Wife ofKhristofor Andreyevich LievenPrince von Lieven (1774-1839), Livonian aristocrat, Russian general & diplomat, Ambassador to Berlin 1810, Ambassador to Great Britain 1812-1834. mar 1800.
Dorothea von Benckendorff
Dorothea's physical appearance & personal qualities.
"Sir Thomas Lawrence painted Dorothea in 1805 when she was twenty and rather later so did F.F. Watts RA. She had a long reddish nose, large ears, a long slender neck, a large irregular face with sharp features, grey eyes, dark curly hair, and a graceful and sinuous walk. Countess Lieven dressed superbly as money was never a problem for her; she also played the pianoforte and hard -- all of which endeared her to the Duke [Wellington]. She was ambitious, attractive, charming, totally ruthless, loved power, was a dedicated snob, loved royalty, suffered from ennui, and her political friendships were often passionate in intensity and sexuality. She admired Shakespeare's works and Walter Scott's novels." (Wellington the Beau: 165)

"This woman, though hardly a beauty---'nose too strong, ears enormous, neck too long, mouth disgraceful'---nevertheless exuded an indefinable attraction. Her physical demeanor was said to be exquisite. Attired always at thge height of a fashion, she was a telented pianist, superb dancer, and scintillating conversationalist. She introduced the waltz to Britain. She had, remarked Charles Greville, 'the faculty of turning everyone to account, and eliciting something either of entertainment or information from the least important of her acquaintance.' Men stumbled over each other to pay their compliments. Her intrigues and meddling in British politics would a point in 1834 where Lord Palmerston felt obliged to insist to St. Petersburg that she and her husband be recalled. The Russian foreign office complied. Prince Lieven returned to Russia and accepted the post of governor to the tsarevich. Four years later he was dead." (Walking Since Daybreak: 20)

Princess Lieven's persona.

" . . . Charles Greville, that shrewd judge of human nature, wrote of Madame de Lieven, 'She is excessively clever, and when she chooses brilliantly agreeable, fastidious, conscious of her own superiority and inferiority of other people for whom she had contempt. She is dignified, graceful, accomplished, charming on the pianoforte. She endeavours to assume popular and gracious manners but this is done languidly and awkwardly. She suffers from ennui, but at the same time is so clever, imaginative and has keen penetration. She talks with extra ease and gracefulness, her letter and conversation are to the point. Because of her dignity, little bonhomie, stately and reserved manners, she is not liked and has hardly any friends.'" (Wellington the Beau: 165)

"Prince Talleyrand's niece, Dorothea, Duchesse de Dino, who knew Wellington well, and Countess Lieven even better noted: 'Madame de Lieven is the woman to be most feared, respected, cultivated and courted. Her political importance which was founded on her intelligence and her experience was accompanied by an authority which no one dared question. Her house was the most exclusive in London. It is inevitable that the two embassies -- that is the two women who reigned over them [Princess Esterhazy being the second] would enter into competition with each other, and the contest was highly publicised and a favourite diversion of London society.'" (Wellington the Beau: 166)

Princess Lieven's personal & family background.

"Countess (she was made a Princess in 1826) Lieven was of German extraction. Her father was a general and her mother, a baroness, was a close friend of Tsar Paul I's wife. The Lievens had the embassy in Berlin from 1810-12, and came to the London embassy at the end of the year. She became and remained a leading light of English society for twenty years until her voluntary exile to Paris in 1834." (Wellington the Beau: 164)

"The most renowned of all the Lievens was Dorothea, nee Benckendorff. She had married Christoph von Lieven, a son of Charlotte, in 1800. In 1812 Christoph was sent as Russian ambassador to London. The Lievens would remain in England for twenty-two years. Dorothea would hobnob with the high and mighty: King George IV, the Duke of Wellington, Earl Grey, Lords Castlereagh and Aberdeen, and the royal Dukes of Clarence, Cumberland, and York. Her paramours were legion---counts, grand dukes, foreign ministers, and prime ministers. In 1818 she took Metternich, 'the coachman of Europe,; as her lover, at the apex of his political power. The Austrian foreign minister was at the time the most celebrated man in Europe, architect of the post-Napoleon peace. Francois Guizot, who in 1847 became French prime minister, was a later conquest. 'I quite like prime ministers,' Dorothea had written to Metternich in 1820." (Walking Since Daybreak: 20)

Dorothea's devotees.

"She 'succeeded in inspiring a confidence' with prominent men 'until now unknown in the annals of England,' the circumspect Russian foreign minister enthused. Princess Lieven enchanted men's hearts and engaged their political thinking. Her friendships with them opened avenues of power. Dorothea's devotees included monarchs---Great Britain's George IV --- and ministers of state---Metternich, Wellington, Canning, Nesselrode, Talleyrand and Guizot. She exerted authority in the diplomatic councils of Great Britain, France, and russia. And a mesmerizing blend of passion and political machination marked her love affairs with Metternich and Guizot." (Dorothea Lieven: A Russian Princess in London and Paris, 1785-1857: 3)

A diplomatic force to be reckoned with.

"Sharp-eyed, sharp-tongued and a diplomatic force to be reckoned with, Princess Dorothea Lieven became another one of my favourites when researching Napoleon in America. As the wife of the Russian ambassador to Great Britain from 1812 to 1834, Dorothea had easy access to royalty, ministers, diplomats and politicians. This, combined with her considerable social skills and political acumen, gave her more influence than any other woman of the time. Her letters provide scintillating commentary on the notable persons and events of the post-Napoleonic years." (Imagining the Bounds of History)

Sleeping with every major statesman on the European stage.
"Exchanging, when she came to England, the world of War and Peace for Les Liaisons Dangereuses, Dorothea devoted herself tirelessly to the welfare of Russia, assiduously sleeping with every major statesman on the European stage, including Metternich, "the first statesman in Europe", George IV and each successive British prime minister bar George Canning, whom she saw as a plebeian with no manners. The fact that her roll-call of lovers was more or less identical with that of the courtesan Harriette." (Telegraph)

Married young, but unfaithful to husband on many occasions.
" . . . In London the Russian ambassador was Count Christopher Lieven, who was an amiable shrewd diplomat and an excellent husband. His wife was born on 17 December 1785 at Riga as Dorothea von Benckendorff. She married Lieven in 1800 when she was fifteen and was to be unfaithful to him on many occasions. Her intimacy with King George IV and with Earl Grey caused much concern. She was a close friend of two Foreign Secretaries, Lord Castlereagh and Canning; of three prime ministers, Wellington, Lord Grey and Lord Aberdeen; and of three royal dukes, Clarence, Cumberland and York. She became the mistress of Prince Metternich and ended her life in Paris as the mistress of Francois Guizot, French ambassador in London and later premier of France under Louis Philippe." (Wellington the Beau: the Life and Loves of the Duke of Wellington: 164)

Her lovers were:
Lt. Col. Arthur Wellesley
1) Arthur Wellesley1st Duke of Wellington (1769-1852)
Charles Grey, 1794
2) Charles Grey2nd Earl Grey (176 4-1845)

3) Eugene d'ArnaudBaron de Vitrolles (1774-1854)
French aristocrat & politician
Inspector of the Imperial Army 1812
Plenipotentiary Minister in Tuscany 1822
Pair de France 1930.

"Politically nearer to the Count of Artois than to Louis XVIII, a handsome man, he is a success in the salons and is apparently seduced by Madame de Dino. From 1817 to 1829 she is his faithful correspondent.  The Duchess' letters are full of severe, sometimes tender words but always friendly."  (
Francois Guizot, 19th c
4) Francois Guizot (1787--1874)
French prime minister.
Lover in 1837-1857.

"Just as she had in London, Dorothea submerged herself in the beau monde and gave birth to a popular salon. In 1837 she became the mistress of François Guizot, a widowed historian and politician who served as foreign minister of France from 1840 to 1848. As a result, Prince Lieven cut off Dorothea’s allowance. Shortly thereafter Lieven made a tour of Southern Europe with the tsar-to-be, during which he was seized with a sudden illness. He died in Rome on January 10, 1839, leaving Dorothea free to pursue her romance. Though Guizot and Dorothea never lived together and never married, theirs was a genuine and lasting love match. For more about their relationship, see the François Guizot website." (Imagining the Bounds of History)

"She created a salon there which became known as the listening post of Europe and began a 20-year relationship with the French statesman Francis Guizot. When Guizot was Foreign minister she facilitated private messages between him and the English foreign minister, Lord Aberdeen. 'Your letters are always welcome and never more so than when you write with a view …of preserving peace,” Aberdeen wrote. When she asked Guizot’s political opponent Adolphe Thiers why he no longer came to her salon he replied: “When you are no longer French Minister I will visit you again.'" (History of Royal Women)
George IV of Great Britain, 1798
Lover in 1826.

" . . . On the other hand, George IV established specially intimate connections with the foreign Ambassadors, two of who, Lieven and Esterhazy, had in the early part of Canning's tenure of office the confidence of the king to a greater degree that the Foreign Secretary himself. Princess Lieven first won the heart of the King by her music, and if we are to believe the lady herself, he displayed on one occasion at least a passion for her. She was the real chief of the Russian mission. . . ." (The Letters of George IV, 1812-1830: lxxxi)

"Her fascination with men in power was reciprocated. George IV was enamored of her and kept a picture of her by his bed. She became a member of the “Cottage Coterie” who hung out with The Regent at his Windsor “cottage” and conspired against the opposition party led by George Canning. She was devastated when her friend and confidant, the Foreign Minister Lord Castlereagh died, but when Canning succeeded him, Canning became her new confidant as did later Lord Grey, who became Prime Minister in 1830." (History of Royal Women)
George Canning
6) George Canning (1770-1827)
Prime Minister of the UK
File:Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston by John Partridge.jpg
Henry John Temple
3rd Viscount Palmerston
7) Henry John Temple3rd Viscount Palmerston (1784-1865)
Karl Robert von Nesselrode
Metternich, c1830
Lover in 1818-1826.

"In 1818 Dorothea began an affair with Austrian foreign minister Clemens von Metternich. As they rarely saw each other, their romance was more a meeting of the minds than a physical ardour. She wrote him letters full of political gossip, to which he responded rather less fulsomely. . .  The affair ended in 1826, when Dorothea learned that Metternich was seeing a younger, more attractive woman." (Imagining the Bounds of History)

"She notoriously had a love affair with the Austrian Chancellor Metternich. They met in 1818 where they struck up a conversation about Napoleon. Metternich later said of their meeting : “This proves he (Napoleon) has been more useful to me on his rock in the ocean than ever he was on the throne.” Their correspondence survives – he wrote mainly about his love and she of politics. Five years later the relationship was dying as was the Russian-Austrian alliance. Metternich’s marriage to his second wife ended it." (History of Royal Women)
File:Constantine Pavlovich by P.E.Rockstuhl (c.1809, Hermitage).jpg
Konstantin of Russia
10) Konstantin Pavlovich of Russia (1779-1831)

"Contrary to common expectation Dorothea Lieven's erstwhile lover, Grand Duke Constantine, did not succeed Alexander. And an insurrection instantly welcomed their younger brother to the throne. . . ." (Dorothea Lieven: A Russian Princess in London and Paris, 1785-1857: 100)
Dolgorukov Peter.jpg
Pyotr Dolgorukov, 1800s
11) Pyotr Petrovich Dolgorukov (1777-1806)
Russian aristocrat, diplomat & general.

10) Theobald-Emile Arcambal. (1800-1870)
 Baron Piscatory.

British Queens--

Queen Caroline of Great Britain
@Historic Royal Women

Queen of Great Britain.

Daughter of Karl II of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel & Augusta of Hanover.

Wife of George IV of Great Britain, mar 1795.

Caroline's list of lovers..

"Lord Liverpool comes to Prince George with a report about the men in Caroline's life: Sir Thomas Lawrence; George Canning; Admiral Sidney Smith; Captain Thomas Manley; and the honorable Henry Hood. Caroline's neighbors, Sir John and Lady Douglass, made the list. And there is a report that Caroline has had a bastard child she has named William. Caroline has been virtually collecting children. All these children could be a possible cover for William, because she could always say William is just another child that stays with her." (A Royal Scandfal)

Her lovers during exile at Blackheath.
"Caroline didn't like her husband either and from George´s correspondence became clear that they had one three times sexual intercourse during the first two nights of their marriage. But it was enough for a daughter: in January 1796 Charlotte Augusta was born. Caroline and George lived seperate lives and didn't appear in public together. They both had other lovers. Caroline wasn't often allowed to see her daughter and in 1799 she was banished to Blackheath. Possibly George Canning and Sir Sidney Smith were her lovers there." (androom)

Mixing with the aates in a manor house.

"During her 15 years or so living at Montagu House, Princess Caroline was the target of some wild rumours. A sociable and confident woman, Charlotte hosted famously wild parties at Montagu House and was romantically linked to several men. She was accused of flirting with Naval heroesAdmiral Sir William Sidney Smith (1764-1840) and Captain Thomas Manby (1769-1834) and having a brief relationship with politician and future Prime Minister George Canning (1770 –1827). She wasn’t just a known for her social skills, but also her generosity with poor neighbours. In 1802, Caroline adopted a baby boy William Austin when his desperate mother brought him to the house." (Memoirs of a Metro Girl)

Queen Caroline's lovers were:
File:Louis Ferdinand of Prussia.jpg
Louis Ferdinand of Prussia

Ludwig Ferdinand of Prussia(1772-1806)

Lover in 1794-1798.

Prussian prince & military commander., musician & composer.

Son of Prince August Ferdinand of Prussia and Elisabeth Louise of Brandenburg-Schwedt .

"In 1806, rumours that a four-year-old child in her entourage, William Austin, was her illegitimate son, led to what became known as 'the Delicate Investigation'. A Royal Commission repudiated the charge and found Lady Douglas, who had started the rumour, guilty of perjury. But years later, Caroline told her lawyer's brother that the child was the natural son of Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia, who had always been her love. Mrs. Fitzherbert was to state later that Caroline had secretly married Prince Louise before she married the Prince of Wales." (Scandal!: An Explosive Exposé of the Affairs, Corruption and Power Struggles of the Rich and Famous)

George Canning
George Canning (1770-1827)
British prime minister
Lover in 1799.

" . . . George Canning, a twenty-nine-year-old politician who would later become prime minister, was a frequent visitor. Canning initially resisted what he called 'the abundant and overpowering temptation to the indulgence of passion. . . which must have been dangerous, perhaps ruinous, to her who was the cause of it, and myself,' but later became Caroline's lover. . . ." (Becoming Queen: 27)
Thomas Lawrence

Thomas Lawrence (1769-1830)

Lover in 1800-1801.

English portrait painter.

"In 1800 the dashing young society artist Thomas Lawrence stayed at Montague House for a number of nights and became another of Caroline's distinguished partners in flirtation. . . . " (The Trial of Queen Caroline: 26)

"In 1802, Lawrence exhibited a full length picture of Caroline, Princess of Wales, and her daughter, Charlotte. During the course of the sittings at Montague House, Blackheath, he had necessarily become 'very intimate' with the Princess of Wales and her daughter and 'fame was busy in attributing his visits to improper motives.' His relationship with the Princess of Wales was questioned during the Delicate Investigation of 1806 but he was cleared of any impropriety." (Regency History)

Sidney Smith

Sidney Smith (1764-1840)

Lover in 1801-1802.
British admiral

"Sir Sidney was lodging with Caroline's neighbours in Blackheath, Major-General Sir John Douglas---who had been with him at Acre---and Douglas's wife, Charlotte. Caroline befriended the little household. Lady Douglas, a good-looking, socially ambitions woman of low birth, became her constant companion, and for a time lived at Montague House. Sir Sidney, though was more intimate still. The Princess 'is at present entirely wrapped up in Sir Sidney Smith,' said Lord Minto in March. But by autumn he was cast aside in favour of a new love, Captain Thomas Manby. . . . " (The Trial of Queen Caroline: the Scandalous Affair that Nearly Ended a Monarchy:27)

Thomas Manby (1759-1834)

Lover in 1802-1804.
British naval officer.
Rear Admiral, RN

Also known as
Thomas Moore Manby.

Son of Matthew Pepper Manby, Lord of Wood Hall Manor.

Husband of Judith Hammond (1887-?), mar 1810

"Fortunately for Caroline, Thomas Manby was an honourable man. According to his brother, George, the two men had been staying at the Spring Garden Coffee House in London when an anonymous letter arrived offering Thomas up to 40,000 pounds 'if he would give or furnish such information as would convict the Princess of Wales.' The man bearing the note was, according to the barmaid, Colonel John McMahon, George's servant and all. She said he later returned for an answer, but there was none. Manby burned the note in disgust." (The Trial of Queen Caroline: the Scandalous Affair that Nearly Ended a Monarchy:32)

John Chester.

Lover in 1805.

"Mrs. Lisle . . . added two more names to the legion of the Princess's possible illicit admirers in Mr. John Chester at Lady Sheffield's at Christmas 1805. . . ." (The Unruly Queen)

Henry Hood, 2nd Viscount Hood (1753-1836)

Lover in 1805.

Chamberlain of the Household to Queen Caroline, 1820-1821

Son of Admiral Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood and Susannah Hood, Baroness Hood of Catherington.

Husband of Jane Hood.

"Henry Hood, 2nd Viscount Hood, had been implicated in rumours of being a paramour of Caroline." (
A Right Royal Rumpus)

"Mrs. Lisle confirmed that the Princess had driven out for hours at a time in Mr. Hood's whisky at Catherington, with no other companion but his servant. . . ." (The Unruly Queen.)

Captain Moore.

Lover in 1805.

" . . . Mrs. Lisle added . . . added two more names to the legion of the Princess's possible illicit admirers in . . . a Captain Moore, directly on the Princess's return to Blackheath. . . ." (The Unruly Queen)

Samuel Roberts.

Lover in 1806.
a footman

" . . . One of the footmen at the Montague House, Samuel Roberts -- perhaps the 'handsome footman' implicated by Lady Hester Stanhope -- had been more outspoken. 'The Princess is very fond of fucking,' he had said, an assertion treated by McMahon as a dispassionate observation, but it may well have been born of personal experience." (The Unruly Queen)

Ernest, Duke of Cumberland.

Lover in 1806.

Lord Rivers.
Lover in 1807-1809.

"Lord Rivers of Stratfield Saye and Sudeley Castle was a fifty-seven-year-old bachelor and, according to Lady Charlotte Campbell's 1838 Diary, 'a pleasant and elegant man -- one of the last of that race of persons who were the dandies of a former century.' He had been a Tory MP, and was to remain one of the King's lords of the bedchamber till 1810. As we have seen, he had been present at Blackheath in the summer of 1807 to celebrate the Princess's restoration to the King's favour. Whether or not Caroline granted him 'the lat favours' can no more be substantiated than whether Lady Hertford accorded that same prize to the Prince of Wales, as no correspondence between either couple exists. Rivers was often called the Princess's 'lover' as Lady Hertford was dubbed the Prince's 'mistress'. . . The Prince himself, characteristically, had Lowten , his private detective, investigate the Princess's relations with Rivers some years alter. A maid reported that one afternoon she had seen 'the pillows of the sofa on the floor, the floor covered with hair powder'. Suffice it to say that Rivers was a constant escort to the Princess in her new and sociable London life." (The Unruly Queen)

Lord Henry Fitzgerald
Lord Henry Fitzgerald (1761-1829)
Lover in 1809.
Amateur actor

"Lord Henry FitzGerald (1761-1829) amateur actor, fourth son of twenty-two children of James FitzGerald, twentieth Earl of Kildare, first Duke of Leinster. Older brother of Edward FitzGerald the Irish nationalist. Married Charlotte Boyle-Walsingham and became Baron de Ros. He was perhaps also lover to Caroline Amelia of Brunswick, Princess of Wales." (Elmbridge Hundred)

"Around the year 1810 we find Lord Henry Fitzgerald constantly to be seen in the company of the Princess of Wales - something indeed to set the tongues a-wagging. Caroline Amelia of Brunswick had engaged in a loveless marriage with her cousin, George, Prince of Wales, in 1795. . . The two were temperamentally incompatible. . . After a short time the two parted amid much acrimony, and kept two separate establishments. . . . The princess craved for the affection which was denied her. . . In this love-starved atmosphere she clung to whatever company - especially male company - was around. Her name was linked amorously to several gentlemen - probably with little foundation. When the amiable and urbane Lord Henry Fitzgerald appeared on her scene she fell for him hook, line, and sinker. It is difficult to tell just how intimate the two became during the following months, but, in spite of the fact that they were then both well over forty, it seems he returned her affection." (Molesey History)

John Ward
1st Earl of Dudley
19th cent.
John Ward, 1st Earl of Dudley (1781-1833)
Lover in 1810.
British aristocrat & politician.

Son of William Ward, 3rd Viscount Dudley & Ward & Ward & Julia Bosville.

"She [Charlotte, Princess of Wales] was also bitterly upset that her mother [Queen Caroline] had not supported her more -- but the Princess of Wales was, in her words to Whitbread, 'weary of all the trouble she had endured herself, and been the occasion of to her friends', Caroline was, in spirit, once more on the Continent, not in the drawing-roo of Connaught Place. It was only Brougham who had deluded Princess Charlotte into believing that Caroline would stay in England if her daughter, her chief protector, stayed -- and thought of leaving only because her daughter did. As her friend Mr. John Ward put it, 'this poor woman . . . it is evident, can never pass one hour of peace and happiness in this island'." (The Unruly Queen)

James Grant Raymond.

Lover in 1810.

Pietro Sapio.

Lover in 1813.

Also known as:
the Young Chanticleer.

Italian musician

During the residence at Kensington Caroline began and maintained an intimacy with an Italian family of professional musicians, named Sapio. The family consisted of father, mother, and son, and, as in other instances, they had no sooner secured her countenance and support than they began to batten on her and use her for their own ends. Apparently she discovered this later on, for she dropped them as suddenly as she had taken them up, but in the meanwhile the freedom of intercourse between the Princess and the musicians gave rise to scandal out of all proportion to the cause." (A Queen of Indiscretions: lii)

" . . To the other cottage Caroline was herself an almost daily visitor, ostensibly taking singing lessons from a handsome Italian musician, Pietro Sapio. But Sapio had in fact become her lover, a circumstance made only too evident by the constant presence at Kensington Palace of his parents, a ramshackle and impoverished count and countess. . . ." (The Unruly Queen: n.p.)

Charles Hesse  (1793-1832)

Lover in 1814.
Prussian officer.

Son of A Prussian merchant.

"Captain Hesse, a dashing young officer of the 18th Hussars, was the reputed son of the Duke of York by a German lady of rank. He served with Wellington's army in the Peninsula, and was wounded at Waterloo. His parentage naturally brought him into contact with Princess Charlotte, who fell in love with him when she was about sixteen. She wrote him some rather indiscreet letters, and, whilst he was in Spain, she sent him presents, which she experienced much difficulty in getting him to return. For some time after August 1814, whilst the Princess of Wales was living on the continent, he was in her Household, and her enemies alleged that she too had a fancy for him. He returned to England with her in 1820. In later years he had a liaison with the Queen of Naples, and this becoming too notorious, he was expelled . . . ." (The Letters of King Geore IV, Volumes 2-3: 321)

" . . . Charlotte even insinuated that Hesse was likely her mother's lover, as well.  Captain Hesse had joined Princess Caroline as an equerry." (Her Parent's Pawn in English History Authors)

" . . . When Hesse was posted with his regiment to Bognor, in his vanity he sought to attract the attention of Princess Charlotte of Wales, only daughter of the Prince Regent, who was staying there. Several letters were exchanged between the couple through Margaret Mercer Elphinstone (later Countess de Flahaut), though General Garth also delivered some letters under the impression that they were from Charlotte's mother the Princess of Wale, who was estranged from the Regent. When the romance was discovered Hesse was sent out to Spain with his regiment." (Wikipedia)

" . . . Princess Charlotte told her father that her mother had left her alone with a cavalryman, Captain Charles Hesse, in Charlotte's own bedroom and locked them in, saying in French, 'I'm going now; enjoy yourselves.' Charlotte suspected that her mother wished to compromise her and promote Charlotte's illegitimate half-brother. The Prince Regent decided Charlotte should be married off as soon as possible but when the drunken Prince of Orange was suggested to her she fled in a hackney coach to her mother's house." (Jane Austen, Obstinate Heart: A Biography: 218)

"One of my most intimate friends was the late Captain Hesse, generally believed to be a son of the Duke of York, by a German lady of high rank. . . Hesse, in early youth, lived with the Duke and Duchess of York; he was treated in such a manner by them as to indicate an interest in him by their Royal Highnesses which could scarcely be attributed to ordinary regard, and was gazetted a cornet in the 18th Hussars at seventeen years of age. Shortly afterwards, he went to Spain, and was present in all the battles in which his regiment was engaged; receiving a severe wound in the wrist at the battle of Vittoria. When this became known in England, a royal lady wrote to Lord Wellington, requesting that he might be carefully attended to; and, at the same time, a watch, with her portrait was forwarded, which was delivered to the wounded Hussar by Lord Wellington himself. When he had sufficiently recovered, Hesse returned to England, and passed much of his time at Oatlands, the residence of the Duchess of York; he was also honoured with the confidence of the Princess Charlotte and her mother, Queen Caroline. Many delicate and important transactions were conducted through the medium of Captain Hesse; in fact, it was perfectly well known that he played a striking part in many scenes of domestic life which I do not wish to reveal. I may, however, observe that the Prince Regent sent the late Admiral Lord Keith to Hesse's lodgings, who demanded, in his Royal Highness's name, the restitution of the watch and letters which had been sent him when in Spain. After a considerable amount of hesitation, the Admiral obtained what he wanted the following day; whereupon Lord Keith assured him that the Prince Regent would never forget so great a mark of confidence, and that the heir to the throne would ever afterwards be his friend. I regret to say, from personal knowledge, that upon this occasion the Prince behaved most ungratefully and unfeelingly; for after having obtained all he wanted, he positively refused to receive Hesse at Carlton House." (Reminiscences of Captain Gronow: 217)

Captain Hesse's romantic career.

"Hesse's life was full of singular incidents. He was a great friend of the Queen of Naples, the grandmother of the ex-Sovereign of the Two Sicilies; in fact, so notorious was that liaison, that Hesse was eventually expelled from Naples under an escort of gendarmes. He was engaged in several affairs of honour, in which he always displayed the utmost courage; and his romantic career terminated by his being killed in a duel by Count Leon, natural son of the first Napoleon. He died as he had lived, beloved by his friends, and leaving behind him little but his name and the kind thoughts of those who survived him."  (Reminiscences of Captain Gronow: 219)
File:Joachim Murat (by Jean Baptiste Joseph Wicar).jpg
Joachim Murat 
19th c. 
Joachim Murat (1767-1815)
King of Naples 1808-1815
Lover in 1815.

"Finally, in August 1814, Caroline decided to leave England. In Geneva, at a ball given in her honour, she shocked her hosts by dancing naked to the waist. In Naples, she became the mistress of King Joachim, Napoleon's brother-in-law. When she left Naples -- at the time Napoleon escaped from Elba -- she had with her Napoleon's courtier, a coarsely handsome Italian named Bartolomeo Bergami, a former quartermaster in a regiment of hussars. This swarthy, bearded, intensely masculine character looked like a brigand from a Drury Lane play. He travelled with her to Munich, Tunis, Athens, Constantinople and Jerusalem, and when they settled in her villa near Pesaro they behaved as a man and wife." (Scandal)

"When Caroline arrived in Naples in 1814, Joachim Murat, King of Naples and Napoleon’s brother-in-law, met her outside the city and accompanied her to her residence. Additionally, he stationed a royal guard at her residence for protection and as sign of honour. They were so often seen driving around together in Murat’s carriage that they were believed to have an affair." (Regency Explorer)

"The Princess of Wales and her suite were at the frontier of the Kingdom of Naples by a guard of honour, and at Terracina King Joachim Murat himself appeared, resplendent in military uniform, with a corps of Neapolitan officers at his back to escort Caroline into the city. The elaborate reception afforded by Murat to the Princess was no more disinterested than had been the court paid to her at Milan. Murat hoped, somewhat naively, that his attentions to Caroline would be reflected in a favourable view of his claim to the Kingdom of Naples being taken by Castlereagh among other ministers at Vienna. He was dashing beyond description, so perhaps it was for propriety's sake that the Princess insisted on twelve-year-old Willy's presence in the gala carriage with herself and the King. A fearless cavalry officer, Murat looked impressive even seated. Like some figure from Versailles, he sported a long curling wig, black as Caroline's own. (She fancied that she resembled him) Without many brains inside his bewigged head, Murat was affable in conversation, courtly to ladies and possessed of a strong sense of self-preservation, if not of animal cunning. He was in appearance a character from opera buffa, a sort of pasteboard king -- just like the Bourbon Ferdinando IV before him. In consequence, always ready to indulge the Neapolitans' passion for display and festivities, he was immensely popular." (The Unruly Queen: The Life of Queen Caroline)
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Joachim Murat
"Caroline may or may not be aware that something was up. Either way, her inclination was to travel next to Naples, and into the company of Joachim Murat, hero of Marengo, Austerlitz and the Spanish campaign; veteran of the great retreat from Moscow; and husband of Napoleon's youngest sister, Caroline Bonaparte. . . For the Princess of Wales, the King of Naples was an impossibly exciting figure. . . Like Caroline, Murat was emotional and determined, but no intellectual." (The Trial of Queen Caroline: 59)
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Bartolomeo Bergami
Bartolomeo Pergami.
Lover in 1814-1820.
Italian adventurer

Also known as:
Bartolo Bergami.

Bergami's physical appearance & personal traits.

"Pergami (or Bergami, as he was sometimes known) was a startlingly handsome man, well over six feet tall, with black curling hair, dark eyes and a splendid physique. . . ." (The Unruly Queen: The Life of Queen Caroline)
Image result for bartolomeo bergami
Bartolomeo Bergami
"Pergami was a soldier, and had fought in the recent wars on the side of the French. He was six foot three with a fine masculine physique, a mass of curly black hair and a luxurious dangling moustache. In appearance he was not dissimilar to Joachim Murat, although at thirty he was far younger and sixteen years Caroline's junior. Unlike Murat, he had no huge reputation, but he was not without air of soldierly romance, and it was rumoured that he had once killed a senior officer in a duel. . . ." (The Trial of Queen Caroline: 62)
Caroline & amp; Bergami
Pergami's physical appearance & personal qualities.
"Caroline moved on to Italy. . . Somewhere along the way, Caroline acquired an extraordinary companion. Bartolomeo Bergami had flashing eyes, curly black hair and an outsized moustache. He was an Italian adventurer of mysterious origins. Bergami became Caroline's secretary and, of course, her lover. The pair journeyed around the Mediterranean, ending up in the Middle East . . . Caroline and Bergami settled down to live together in Pesaro, Italy." (Dark History of the Kings and Queens of England)
Caricature of Queen Caroline and Bergami seated in a box at the opera being observed by a crowd of men. 7 June 1821 Hand-coloured etching
Bergami & amp; Caroline
First encounter.
"Before she left Milan, the Princess turned to Ghislieeri and his friend Pino for advice. She felt in need of a courtier who knew the country and the language and who could arrange lodgings and transport on her journey south. The candidate whom they ordered to present himself at the Palazzo Borromeo where she lodged by the Porta Ticinese was one Bartolomeo Pergami, aged thirty, who had served Pino in the Russian campaign. More recently , he had acted as the Contessa Calderara Pino's courier. . . According to Pergami's own account, he entered the Princess's lodgings to find nobody in attendance. Wandering through a suite of rooms in search of help, he found a lady struggling vainly to disentangle the skirt of her dress from a piece of furniture. Pergami courteously assisted her and discovered, if he had not guessed it, that this was his prospective employer. The Princess rewarded his gallantry by hiring him forthwith, and Pergami duly rode ahead of the royal entourage to secure a change of horse and lodgings for the party." (The Unruly Queen: The Life of Queen Caroline)

" . . . According to one report he had first met Caroline in Milan, when he presented himself at her hotel. . . ." (The Trial of Queen Caroline :62)

"After a two-week visit to Brunswick, Caroline headed for Italy through Switzerland. Along the way, possibly in Milan, she hired Bartolomeo Pergami as servant. Pergami soon rose to the head of Caroline's household, and managed to get her sister, Angelica, Countess of Oldi, appointed as Caroline's lady-in-waiting. In mid-1815, Caroline bought a house, Villa d'Este, on the shores of Lake Como, despite the fact that her finances were stretched." (English Princesses:124)

Royal jet setters on Mediterranean cruises.

"From early 1816, she and Pergami went of a cruise around the Mediterranean, visiting Napoleon's former palace on Elba, and Sicily, where Pergami obtained the Order of Malta and a barony. By this time, Caroline and Pergami were eating their meals together openly, and it was widely rumoured that they were lovers. They visited Tunis, Malta, Milos, Athens, Corinth, Constantinople, and Nazareth. Caroline entered Jerusalem riding on a donkey in a convoy of camels. Pergami was made a Knight of the Order of Jerusalem. In August, they returned to Italy, stopping at Rome to visit the Pope." (English Princesses:124)

Affair's benefits to Bergami.
"In 1816, Caroline bought the Sicilian title ‘Baronia della Franchina’ and granted both the title and the lands to her chamberlain / alleged lover Pergami. He also received nine properties around Lake Como from her." (Regency Explorer)

"When Caroline moved to Italy, she employed Bartolomeo Pergami (1784-1842), a dark-haired and dark-eyed ex-soldier, as her chamberlain. He was 16 years her junior. They shared adjoined bedrooms and ate their meals together. Lord Byron, also travelling in Italy, was quick to inform his London publisher: ‘I know for sure they are lovers.’" (Regency Explorer)

References for Caroline of Ansbach.
A Queen of Indiscretion.
Jane Austen's World.
National Portrait Gallery
All Franchini
Desire for Art .